ENGLISH 111 SHORT STORIES
Terms • Review the terms listed in your resource packet: Elements of Narrative • Review the Short Story Introduction • Open Book Test: Monday, September 17th on term review
THE STORIES “Two Words” by Isabel Allende (Echoes) “A Rose for Emily” by William Faulkner (Seagull Reader) “Tapka” from Natasha and Other Stories by David Bezmozgis An Excerpt from A Visit From the Goon Squad by Jennifer Egan Edgar Allen Poe (various from Project Gutenberg)
POV • In Objective Point of View the reader has access to nobody's head. • In Third Person Limited Point of View the reader has access to one person's head at a time. • In Omniscient Point of View the reader has access to everybody's head at the same time.
Introduction to Magical Realism/Read aloud: “A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings: A Tale for Children”. • Two Words: The focus of this story is the power of language on multiple levels. “Two Words” By Isabel Allende
Magic Realism is a genre of fiction in which magical elements are blended into a realistic atmosphere in order to access a deeper understanding of reality. These magical elements are explained like normal occurrences that are presented in a straightforward manner which allows the "real" and the "fantastic" to be accepted in the same stream of thought.
Think of it as "what happens when a highly detailed, realistic setting is invaded by something 'too strange to believe'".
But isn’t it just Fantasy?! • Prominent English-language fantasy writers have stated that "magic realism" is only another name for fantasy fiction. • However, magical realism is different from fantasy literature based on the perception of the fantastical element: • In fantasy, the presence of the supernatural is perceived as odd or different, whereas in magical realism the presence of the supernatural is accepted. • In magical realism the author presents the supernatural as being equally valid to the natural.
Characteristics The extent to which the characteristics listed below apply to any given magic realist text varies; every text is different and will employ a smattering of those listed here. However, they do serve as a good judge of what one might expect from a magic realist text.
Characteristics - Fantastical elements • As recently as 2008, magical realism in literature has been defined as "a kind of modern fiction in which fabulous and fantastical events are included in a narrative that otherwise maintains the 'reliable' tone and draw upon the genres of fable, folk tale, and myth while maintaining a strong contemporary voice. • The fantastic attributes given to characters in such novels — levitation, flight, telepathy, telekinesis — are among the means that magic realism uses in order to discuss the often phantasmagorical realities of present day issues.
Wait a Minute! • Definition of PHANTASMAGORIA • 1 • : an exhibition of optical effects and illusions • 2 • a: a constantly shifting complex succession of things seen or imagined b: a scene that constantly changes • 3 • : a bizarre or fantastic combination, collection, or assemblage • Examples of PHANTASMAGORIA • He saw a phantasmagoria of shadowy creatures through the fog.
Characteristics - Hybridity When the plot lines utilize multiple layers of reality taking place at the same time. Such opposites as urban and rural, and past and present.
Characteristics - Authorial Reticence • Authorial reticence is the "deliberate withholding of information and explanations about the disconcerting fictitious world".[ • The narrator does not provide explanations about the accuracy or credibility of events described. • Note that the act of explaining the supernatural would immediately reduce the legitimacy of this world in comparison to the natural world; the reader would consequently disregard the supernatural as false.
Characteristics - Sense of Mystery Something that most, if not all, critics agree on is this major theme. Magic realist literature tends to read at a very intensified level. You have to be open to the crazy, zany, and wacky stuff going on in these stories. "If you can explain it, then it's not magical realism."
Characteristics - Political Critique Magic realism contains an "implicit criticism of society, particularly the elite".
Major Authors and Works Although there is much debate among critics and writers regarding who and/or which works fall within the genre of magical realism, the following authors tend to be regarded as most representative of the narrative mode.
Major Authors and Works • Franz Kafka, writing in the 1920s, is arguably the founder of the genre. • Within the Latin American world, perhaps the most iconic of magical realist novelist is Nobel Laureate Gabriel GarcíaMárquez, whose novel One Hundred Years of Solitude was an instant worldwide success. • English Author Salman Rushdie, African American novelist Toni Morrison, English author Louis de Bernières and English feminist writer Angela Carter
Major Authors and Works The first woman writer from Latin America to be recognized outside the continent was Isabel Allende. Her most well-known novel The House of the Spirits is arguably quite similar to Marquez's style of magical realist writing.
“Two Words” By Isabel Allende lecture • BEFORE READING: Background • Until the 1960s, Latin American literature had a small, mostly localized audience. Book publishers typically published only 3,000 copies of a novel. During the 1960s, however, Latin American writers began to reach larger audiences, thanks to the growth of Latin American literacy, advances in book publishing and distribution, and the development of multinational companies. Outstanding authors, such as Gabriel García Márquez, Julio Cortázar, Mario Vargas Llosa, and Carlos Fuentes, sold as many as 20,000 copies of their works. Then in 1968 García Márquez's One Hundred Years of Solitude broke entirely new ground, selling about 100,000 copies per year and creating a viable international market for other Latin American authors. Beginning in 1967, a series of Latin American authors won the Nobel Prize for Literature.
“Two Words” By Isabel Allende lecture • BEFORE Reading: Background • In the 1980s Latin American women writers claimed an international audience, too. Latin America already had several well-known women authors. In the 1980s a feminist literary movement began to develop that its chief proponent, Chilean writer Isabel Allende, said was unified by a common "dimension of emotion, passion, obsession, and dream." Allende, an exemplar of the style of "magic realism," became internationally famous with her best-selling first novel, House of the Spirits (1982; tr. 1985). • This selection, "Two Words," is one of Allende's short stories.
“Two Words” By Isabel Allende lecture • About the Author • Isabel Allende (b. 1942), is a Chilean novelist, short story writer, and author of nonfiction who, with Mexico's Laura Esquivel, has helped create an international audience for Latin America's women writers. • Allende was born in Lima, Peru, and grew up in Chile. As a young woman, she worked as a journalist, married, and had two children. When she was 31, her uncle, Salvador Allende, who was president of Chile, was assassinated in a military takeover of the government. Allende and her family were forced to flee to Venezuela.
“Two Words” By Isabel Allende lecture • About the Author • A painful divorce as well as the illness and death of her grandfather prompted her to write her first novel, House of the Spirits (1982; tr. 1985), which became an international best seller and a film. Allende moved to San Francisco in 1987 with her second husband. Her other novels include Of Love and Shadows (1984; tr. 1987), Eva Luna (1987; tr. 1988), The Stories of Eva Luna (1989; tr. 1991), and the U..S.-based The Infinite Plan (1991; tr. 1993). Her first nonfiction work, Paula (1994; tr. 1995), was a series of letters to her dying daughter. She also wrote Aphrodite: A Memoir of the Senses (1997; tr. 1998). In 1999 two new books appeared: a novel called Daughter of Fortune (1999; tr. 1999) and Conversations with Isabel Allende (1998; tr. 1999), a collection of essays and interviews with the author.
“Two Words” By Isabel Allende lecture • About the Author: • Allende's work is written in a style called "magic realism," which links myth and fantasy with realistic portrayals of life and often with politics. Previous writers of magic realism include Asturias and Garcia Márquez. Writers of magic realism view Latin America as a many-layered culture in which everyday activities and events are colored by powerful underlying forces, such as religion, superstition, passion, myth, and magic. As Allende's heroine Eva explains it, "reality is not only what we see on the surface; it has a magical dimension as well, and, if we so desire, it is legitimate to enhance it and color it to make our journey through life less trying." • In the Foreword to Conversations with Isabel Allende, the author writes that "Most of my writing is an attempt to bring an illusory order to the natural chaos of life, to decode the mysteries of memory, to search for my own identity."
“Two Words” By Isabel Allende • Read the story • Complete the questions and vocabulary • HANDOUT
“Two Words” By Isabel Allende Journal Question: • What do you think the author's goals and ideas were when she wrote this story? What are her main themes? Defend your answer.
Thinking about Rhetoric • After discussing the following rhetorical devices, listen to the speech by Michelle Obama at the DNC 2012. Take notes on the devices she uses. A Note on the Speech: • Michelle Obama took center stage at the Democratic National Convention on September 4. Her speech was widely anticipated. • First Lady has a special ability to resonate with female voters. "She just has a way of electrifying a crowd and relating to people. The way she has been able to balance being a spokesperson and a first lady and a great mom at the same time is something that a lot of women admire”. • The First Lady focused on her personal relationship with her daughters and her husband during her speech, and then bridged the gap between the personal and the political. Then, complete the activity in Echoes page 244 #5. • You can present your speeches on Monday!
Writing for Impact and Beauty • The study of rhetoric provides speechwriters with numerous rhetorical devices. When you use these devices, your presentations will be more impactful (easier to remember) as well as more beautiful (more pleasurable to listen to). • Of the very large number of rhetorical devices, we’ll investigate three types in this article: • Devices which involve sounds (often with repetition)e.g. alliteration, assonance, onomatopoeia • Devices which involve repetition of words, phrases, or ideas (often with parallelism)e.g. anaphora • Devices which change the usual meaning of wordse.g. metaphors, similes
1. Rhetorical Devices: Sound • Sound-based rhetorical devices add a poetic melody to speeches. Not surprisingly, the net effect is that speeches are more pleasurable to listen to. Three of the most common forms are: • alliteration — repetition of the same sound at the beginning of nearby wordse.g. “what my wife wanted”, “her husband has had” • assonance — repetition of the same vowel sound in nearby wordse.g. “how now brown cow” • onomatopoeia — a word which imitates the sound of itselfe.g. “buzz”, “whoosh”, “meow”
2. Rhetorical Devices: Repetition of Words or Ideas • Two common forms involve repetition in successive clauses or sentences. • anaphora — repetition of a word or phrase at the start of successive clauses or sentencese.g. Winston Churchill • “We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, [... many more ...] We shall never surrender.” • epistrophe — repetition of a word or phrase a the end of successive clauses or sentencese.g. Emerson • “What lies behind us and what lies before us are tiny compared to what lies within us.”
2. Rhetorical Devices: Repetition of Words or Ideas • Repetition is a powerful technique used in other ways as well. • Repetition is commonly used for emphasis. • Repeating a word or phrase in different parts of the speech helps the audience make connections as if you were sewing your speech elements together with a thread.
3. Rhetorical Devices which change word meanings • Three common rhetorical devices by which words can take on new meanings are: • Personification — giving human qualities to abstract ideas, inanimate objects, plants, or animalse.g. “The trees called out to me.” • Metaphor — a comparison of two seemingly unlike thingse.g. “Life is a highway.” • Simile — same as metaphor, but using either “like” or “as”e.g. “Life is like a box of chocolates.” • These rhetorical devices, along with related concepts such as symbolism and analogies, are often the essence of storytelling as an effective means of communication.
Two words • Assignment: Write an analysis of the power of language through a demand writing activity. You will be given a quote from the text as a prompt. This is a 60 minute timed assignment. • HANDOUT
Faulkner on Hemingway: "[Hemingway] has never been known to use a word that might send a reader to the dictionary." • Hemingway on Faulkner: "Poor Faulkner. Does he really think big emotions come from big words?" A Rose for Emily By William Faulkner
“A Rose for Emily”Before Reading • Read introductory notes before the story. • “Aristocracy”: The aristocracy are people considered to be in the highest social class. • "A Rose for Emily" is a five-part short story narrated by the townspeople of Jefferson, Mississippi. • "A Rose for Emily" is a short story by American author William Faulkner first published in the April 30, 1930 issue of Forum. This story takes place in Faulkner's fictional city, Jefferson, in his fictional county of Yoknapatawpha County, Mississippi. It was Faulkner's first short story published in a national magazine.
Who is William Faulkner? • 1897 – 1962 • American author of the 20th century • The majority of his works are based in his native state of Mississippi. • Faulkner is considered one of the most important writers of Southern literature along with Mark Twain,, Truman Capote, and Tennessee Williams. • His work was published as early as 1919 and was largely published during the 1920s and 1930s.
Who is William Faulkner? • Faulkner was relatively unknown until receiving the 1949 Nobel Prize in Literature. • Faulkner has often been cited as one of the most important writers in the history of American literature. • Heavily influenced by the south. • Mississippi marked his sense of humor, his sense of the tragic position of racism, his characterization of Southern characters and timeless themes, including fiercely intelligent people dwelling behind façades.
“A Rose for Emily”Before Reading Vocabulary deprecation tableau cabal impervious acrid thwart august cuckold • remit • mote • gilt • pallid • hue • temerity • teeming • diffident
“A Rose for Emily”After Reading Characters:Identify each of the following characters by writing a brief description of each. • Emily Grierson • Colonel Sartoris • Tobe • Judge Stevens • Homer Barron
“A Rose for Emily”After Reading 1. What metaphor is used to describe Miss Emily in the first paragraph? 2. How is the house personified in the second paragraph? 3. How does Faulkner describe Miss Emily in the sixth paragraph? 4. What did Miss Emily tell her visitors the day after her father’s death? 5. Why did the townspeople not think she was crazy for this? 6. What does Miss Emily do that makes the townspeople think that she and her boyfriend have wed? 7. How do the townspeople know what they know about Miss Emily’s life? What is the source of their information? 8. What is the horrible revelation about Miss Emily that the story ends with? How is this related to the overall meaning of the story?
The Rose as a Symbol of Love--After Reading Roses, in literature and the general daily experience, usually represent love. Roses are given as tokens of affection, as a sign of devotion to the individual to whom they are given. When viewed in this light, the rose seems an odd choice for the title of this story: Emily’s story is disturbing, the tale of a woman obsessed with her own heritage who never understood the true meaning of love. This makes the title ironic, which seems to be Faulkner’s entire point. By using the classic symbol of love to introduce the narrative, he is leading the reader to a consideration of what the components of true love are. Love is not the distorted narcissism that is Emily’s perception; it is a selfless act of giving that builds relationships, not destroys them like in the story.
The Rose as a Tribute Another way to look at the rose in the title “A Rose for Emily” is as a token, a tribute. The narrator tells her story, the kind of person Emily was and the personal actions that led to her demise. Again, Faulkner’s irony is apparent. Tributes are usually something positive, a way for onlookers and observers to understand a person or event as it relates to their own lives. The story of Emily is anything but positive; it is disgusting, repulsive. So why a tribute? Perhaps it is to serve as a reminder of the ugliness of self-absorption, of the consequences of a life lived without love. The rose is given as a tribute to a hideous person that the reader might be reminded of the importance of self-giving and true devotion.
The Rose as a Symbol of Memory Roses are also often used as memories, as a way to preserve a moment in time or to keep a person close to one’s heart. They are dried and kept, not only because they are beautiful, but usually because it is a way to retain a precious time in one’s life. So why would Faulkner use such a symbol of beauty and memory to present the horrific narrative of “A Rose for Emily”? Firstly, the story is written in the form of a memory, the narrator speaking in the first person about events that to him and the community were very real. Secondly, however terrible the tale may be, it serves as a reminder to the reader that some integral things in a person’s life should never be forgotten: love, devotion, and selflessness. By presenting a woman who possessed none of these attributes, Faulkner calls on his readers to remember the things that make life beautiful, especially love. Hence the rose can be seen as a call to memory.
A Rose for EmilyConclusions Drawn As a symbol of love, as a tribute, or as a representative of memory, the rose in the title “A Rose for Emily” presents a variety of interpretations. Faulkner is not an author that can be definitively defined by one theory. His writings are able to be analyzed on multiple levels, because this calls the reader to consider all aspects of the information provided and draw one’s own conclusion. His choice of the rose is testimony to this, as there is no one way to interpret its use. The reader must decide Faulkner’s intention.
“A Rose for Emily”After Reading • MLA DIDLS Analysis Essay • HANDOUT
Tapka by David Bezmozgis • David Bezmozgis (born 1973) is a Canadian writer and filmmaker. • Born in Riga, Latvia, he came to Canada with his family when he was six. He graduated with a B.A. in English literature from McGill University. Bezmozgis received an M.F.A. from the University of Southern California's School of Cinema-Television. In 1999, his first documentary, a 25-minute film called L.A. Mohel, won a major award for student filmmakers. His first published book is Natasha and Other Stories (2004). Stories from that collection first appeared in The New Yorker, Harper's and Zoetrope All-Story. Natasha and Other Stories was chosen for inclusion in Canada Reads 2007. Bezmozgis is among The New Yorker magazine's 2010 top 20 fiction writers under the age of 40.
Tapka by David Bezmozgis 1. How does Bezmozgis describe Goldfinch? 2. What do you notice right away about the language of this text? How does the author arrange the sentences? Does it seem conventional? 3. When does this story take place? 4. The narrator says that he would return from school “bearing the germs of a new vocabulary”. What does this mean and why is it significant? (3) 5. What does he mean by “linguistic bounty”? (3) 6. Describe the Nahumovsky’s. 7. Because the title of the story is “Tapka” we know that when the narrator discusses the dog on page 5 that it is a very important description. Paraphrase the information about Tapka’s immigration to Canada and Rita’s devotion for the dog.
Tapka by David Bezmozgis 8. What about lunchtime excites Mark? Why does he not relate to other students in school (“effectively friendless” page 8)? 9. Choose a passage that best describes Mark’s love for the dog. 10. Describe Bezmozgis’s use of dialogue. What do you notice about the format and why do you think he does this? 11. What is significant about the line “television taught me to say…” (9)? 12. What details does Mark relate about the accident? (12) 13. What is significant about Jana saying, “Mark, get Clonchik” (13)? 14. Reread the passage where Rita, in desperation, attempts to communicate with the doctor. What story does this remind you of (that we’ve read in class) and why? Explain your answer with evidence. 15. Explain the ending of this story. How does Mark first try to rationalize what happened and then quickly succumb to guilt? (18)