CSCI-370/EENG-480Computer Networks Khurram Kazi
Major sources of the slides for this lecture • Slides from Tanenbaum’s and William Stallings’ website are used in this lecture • Interworking with TCP/IP, M9000-02, Global knowledge, training manual, (http://am.globalknowledge.com)
Changing the ordering of Topics covered in the course (sections 5.6 & 6.4) • Based on some feedback from previous class, the ordering of the topics to be covered in the course will change. For now we will concentrate on • Protocols • IP • TCP / UDP • IP Addressing • Go through an example of the Life of a Packet in a Network • In the process we will develop a functional model of a ROUTER.
Source of IP Traffic • Application Traffic type could be • FTP (file transfer) • Instant messaging • Secure or non-secure web access • Streaming video • Document sharing (similar to net meeting) • Database access (across the street or across the continent) • Voice over IP • It all boils down to what protocols are used
Summarizing Features of the Protocol Functions • have a small set of functions that form basis of all protocols • Encapsulation (e.g. IP packets encapsulated in Ethernet frames) • fragmentation and reassembly (e.g. fragmentation of a file during an FTP and reassembly of it at the destination) • connection control (e.g. during TCP session) • ordered delivery • flow control • error control • addressing • multiplexing • transmission services
Starting from the traffic source Demonstrate file transfer using FTP while capturing the data by Wireshark
PDUs (Protocol Data Units) and Fragmentation Example: Fragmentation seen during file transfer using FTP This can be a TCP component of the Packet This can be an IP Packet
Fragmentation and Reassembly • Protocol exchanges data between two entities • Lower-level protocols may need to break data up into smaller blocks, called fragmentation • For various reasons • Network only accepts blocks of a certain size • More efficient error control & smallerretransmission units • Fairer access to shared facilities • Smaller buffers • Disadvantages • Smaller buffers • More interrupts & processing time
Starting the protocol stack analysis with The IP Protocol (RFC 791)http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc0791.txt?number=791 The IPv4 (Internet Protocol) header.
IP Header Fields continued • Version (4 bits) • (whether the format is of type) • currently IP v4 • IP v6 • Internet header length (IHL) (4 bits) • Is the length of header in 32 bit words, • Points to the beginning of the data (payload) • including options • Minimum value for a correct header is 5
IP Header Fields continued Type of Service (8 bits) (see RFC 791 for details) • Is an indication of the abstract parameters of the Quality of Service (QoS) desired. These parameters are to be used to guide the selection of the actual service parameters when transmitting a datagram through a particular network. Several networks offer service precedence, which somehow treats high precedence traffic as more important than other traffic (generally by accepting only traffic above a certain precedence at time of high load). The major choice is a three way tradeoff between low-delay, high-reliability, and high-throughput. Bits 0-2: Precedence. Bit 3: 0 = Normal Delay, 1 = Low Delay. Bits 4: 0 = Normal Throughput, 1 = High Throughput. Bits 5: 0 = Normal Reliability, 1 = High Reliability. Bit 6 1 = minimize monetary cost [defined in RFC 1349] Bit 7: Reserved for Future Use. Only one of the bits [6:3] can be set to a 1
IP Header Fields continued • Total Length (16 bits) • Total Length is the length of the datagram, measured in octets, including internet header and data. This field allows the length of a datagram to be up to 65,535 octets. Such length of a datagram are impractical for most hosts and networks. Since there is no “end of datagram” character/indicator, network hosts use the datagram length to figure out when the datagram ends and other network data begins.
IP Header Fields continued • Identification (16 bits) • An identifying value assigned by the sender to aid in assembling the fragments of a datagram. It is assigned by the originating host. At the source, there is one-to-one relation between datagrams and datagram identifier. As these datagrams traverse the network, they could be split. Hence this field is used by the receiving host to reassemble the original datagram.
IP Header Fields continued • Flags (3 bits) Bit 0: reserved, must be zero Bit 1: (DF) 0 = May Fragment, 1 = Don't Fragment. Bit 2: (MF) 0 = Last Fragment, 1 = More Fragments. • If the datagram cannot be routed without being fragmented, the router will throw it away and send an error message back to the originating host. • When MF=1, it means that the datagram is one of the two or more fragments, but not the last one of the fragments. Receiving hosts use this flag along with the fragment offset to reassemble the fragmented datagrams.
IP Header Fields continued • Fragment Offset (13 bits) • This field specifies how many units from the start of the original datagram the current datagram is. In other words, the first fragment datagram would have a value of 0 for the offset; if the second datagram starts 100 units from the beginning of the original datagram, the offset would be 100. the unit size is eight bytes (instead of one byte) since the field is only 13 bits wide.
IP Header Fields continued • Time to Live (8 bits) • This field indicated how long the datagram should be allowed to exist after entering the internetwork, measuring in seconds (maximum TTL is 255). Presently as datagrams traverse a router, this number is decremented by one. • This informally represents the maximum number of hops that a datagram can make before being discarded.
IP Header Fields continued • Protocol (8 bits) • This field identifies the next higher layer protocol of the data being carried in the datagram. 01 hex ICMP 06 hex TCP 11 hex UDP http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1700.txt?number=1700 lists the different protocols and their identifier numbers
IP Header Fields continued • Header Checksum (16 bits) • This field provides error checking on the IP header only, and does not cover the data that is carried at the end of the header. If the header is extended using the options field, then the checksum includes the extended header field too. • If the target IP-addressed interface receives a datagram with a failed checksum, the entire datagram is silently discarded.
IP Header Fields continued • Source IP Address (32 bits) • The sender’s interface’s 32-bit Internet address is identified in four bytes/octets. • e.g. • C0 99 B8 01 Four pair of Hex characters • 188.8.131.52 • Find the decimal equivalent of the following IP address represented in Hex • 0F 10 07 11 • ---.---.---.--- ??
IP Header Fields continued • Destination IP Address (32 bits) • The target’s host’s 32-bit Internet address is identified in four bytes/octets. • e.g. • C0 99 B8 03 Four pair of Hex characters • 184.108.40.206
Connectionless Transport with User Datagram Protocol (UDP) • Connectionless protocols have the ability to transmit messages without first establishing a circuit. • The network does not need to do anything except transmit packets to the destination • All error checking and flow control is handled by the sending and receiving applications
Advantages and disadvantages of UDP • Speed • UDP offers speed as it carries short messages between hosts on the same network • Can be used in events where a single packet of data needs to be exchanged between hosts • Reliability • In UDP the data is transmitted “blindly” as opposed to sending the data and waiting for an acknowledgement. This may result in data loss • Only application layer deals with error recovery • Applications can simply turn to the user to send the message again! • Optional checksum
UDP Header • The process layer uses TCP or UDP to pass information to the internetwork layer. It is necessary to identify the client or server tasks uniquely so that the information is passed to the proper service or user task. The identification used in the TCP/IP protocol is called the “Port Number”. • UDP and TCP identify server tasks by using a port number that is consistent and well known. To access a service such as DNS (Domain Name Server), the software knows that DNS is waiting for sessions to be established at port 53. • Client tasks are identified by using port numbers that are variable and temporary, called random port numbers. The client random port numbers exist during the communication process and are discarded when the communication process is complete.
UDP Headers The term sockets refers to both an API (application program interface) between hos systems and the TCP/IP applications, and a pairing of the IP address and the port number being used. It is also considered the complete network address of an end of the UDP session. In the language of UDP, the sockets in the figure are 220.127.116.11,53 and 18.104.22.168,8193 This indicates the client is asking for DNS service
Assignment 1, Phase 1. • Write a program that generates 4 IP packets at a time with different IP source and destination addresses. • Use TCP as the client signal of the 2 of IP packets and UDP as the client signal of the other two IP packets • Use http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1700.txt?number=1700 to get the protocol numbers for the TCP and UDP. In your program use Hex values for the protocol numbers and not the decimal values. • Use any pattern of your choice (could be random) that populates the payload port of the IP packet, i.e. in our context, data after the TCP or UDP headers. • Keep in mind that payload is part of the UDP or TCP datagram and should be accounted for in their respective headers (Hint: length). • (Defer the calculation of the checksum till we cover it, for now just put some value as a place holder)
Assignment 1, Phase 1. • Become familiar with reading of RFCs • www.ietf.org • click on RFC Pages • Enter the RFC number and click on go. • Read/browse through RFCs 791, 1180, 760, 349, 1700 and write a very short summary of what is being standardized in the RFCs. (no more than couple of paragraphs per RFC)