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Chapter 11: Monitoring Server Performance

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  1. Chapter 11: Monitoring Server Performance

  2. Introduction to Performance Monitoring • Often, measures of good performance are subjective • By monitoring performance, you can establish a signature, or baseline level of performance under normal circumstances

  3. Introduction to Monitoring Server Performance • Meeting performance expectations • Server performance can deteriorate over time • Monitoring helps alert you to problems before they become serious • Built-in tools for monitoring: • Task Manager • Quick snapshot of current performance measure • Event Viewer • Proactive approach to Server management • Performance console • System Monitor • Real time • Logs and Alerts

  4. Other Tools For Monitoring and Optimization • Check Disk • Defragmenter • Disk Quotas • SNMP • Network Monitor • LDP • REPLMPON • REPADMIN

  5. Optional tools are available for the AD administrator LDAP Diagnostic Tool (LDP.EXE) Low level AD diagnostic tool AD Replication Monitor (REPLMON) More info about whats happen with replication Direct partners Transitive partners USN Roles REPADMIN CLI Tools for Monitoring Active Directory

  6. Task Manager • Fastest way to obtain a system performance snapshot • Provides high-level information • Can be accessed through Windows taskbar or Ctrl+Alt+Delete key combination • Has five main tabs • Applications • Processes • Performance • Networking • Users

  7. Monitoring and Managing Applications • Task Manager • Applications • displays a list of all foreground software applications • menu option: • End Task • Switch To • New Tasks • context menu: • Switch To • Bring to Front • Minimize • Maximize • End Task • Go To Process

  8. Monitoring and Managing Processes • Processes tab • list of all processes in use by applications and services • Displays process information • Process ID – PID • CPU usage % • User Name • Context Menu

  9. Monitoring and Managing Processes (continued)

  10. Managing Processes Normal – all processes equal access to CPU resources Realtime – may lock up the processor

  11. Monitoring Real-Time Performance • Performance • CPU and memory performance charts, graphs, and statistics • A snapshot of system performance • Use in conjunction with more detailed tools

  12. Monitoring Real-Time Performance (continued)

  13. Monitoring Real-Time Performance (continued)

  14. Monitoring Network Performance • Networking • Network utilization information • Percentage of the network bandwidth in use • Performance data for each installed NIC • Name of adapter • Network utilization • Speed of network link • Operational state of adapter

  15. Monitoring Network Performance (continued)

  16. Monitoring Users • Users tab • A listing of users currently logged on • including network clients • Can log off or disconnect a user • Can send messages to connected users • Can connect to another user’s session

  17. Monitoring Users (continued)

  18. Event Viewer • Used to gather information and troubleshoot software, hardware, and system problems • Events are recorded in logs • Event Viewer allows you to view contents of logs • Log entries denote warnings and errors • Often include an event ID that helps to identify problem • Three main logs: • Application log • Program events • Security log • Audit Policy events • Disabled until Audit policy set • System log • System component events

  19. Event Viewer (continued)

  20. Event Viewer (continued) • Domain controller has two additional logs: • Directory service log • File replication service log • Any user can view contents of application and system log • Administrators and those with special permission can view security log • Event types include: information, warning, error

  21. Interpreting Events • Click a log file within Event Viewer to get details • Details pane lists all events with information including: • Type of event • Data and time of event • Source of event • Category and event ID • Computer on which event occurred

  22. Interpreting Events (continued)

  23. Managing Events

  24. Performance Console • Supports gathering more detailed information than Task Manager • Consists of two different tools: • System Monitor • View data gathered from counter objects • Performance Logs and Alerts • Periodically logs samples to a data file to be imported into other applications • Generates alerts when certain configured thresholds are met

  25. System Monitor • Particularly useful for collecting data on real-time server performance • Tasks that can be performed using System Monitor: • Understanding server performance • Problem diagnosis • Capacity planning • Testing • You can specify a type of data to monitor, the source or computer from which to capture data, and performance objects to monitor

  26. System Monitor • Four main areas to monitor for performance • Memory • Processor • Disk • Network

  27. System Monitor • Processor - faster or more processors are not always the answer to improving performance • Disk - disk subsystems can affect how quickly data is read from or written to the disk, thereby affecting performance • Network - the network is often limited by other hardware components, such as slow remote connections or network cards

  28. System Monitor Terminology • Throughput - the quantity of work done over a given period of time • a bottleneck occurs when this value decreases due to too much activity on the network • Queue - data waiting to be processed because servers have fallen behind • Response time - elapsed time from the beginning of a process to its completion

  29. System Monitor Data Collection • Objects - containers for counters and instances • Counters - measure various aspects of an object; it is important to know which counters to use in a given situation • Instances - specific counters that are in use

  30. Browser Cache Objects Paging File Physical Disk Process Processor Redirector Server System Threads Objects

  31. For memory troubleshooting Pages/sec (Memory Object) Hard page fault Committed Bytes (Memory Object) Reserved space in Paging File Pool Nonpaged Bytes (Memory Object) Data that must remain in Memory Recommended Counters

  32. For memory troubleshooting Pool Nonpaged Allocs (Memory Object) Attempts to allocate memory Memory Leak fail to reclaim discarded memory, leading to eventual collapse due to memory exhaustion Available Bytes (Memory Object) Amount of free memory available Avg. Disk Queue Length (Physical Disk Object) Number of read/write requests waiting Recommended Counters

  33. For memory troubleshooting (cont’d) Avg. Disk Sec/Transfer (Physical Disk Object) Time to complete a read/write operation Pages/Sec * Disk Sec/Transfer = Pages / Transfer % Usage (Paging File Object) How much of the Page File is used Pool Paged Bytes (Server Object) The number of bytes of pageable computer memory the server is currently using Pool Nonpaged Bytes (Server Object) The number of bytes of non-pageable computer memory the server is using. Recommended Counters

  34. For processor troubleshooting Processor Queue Length (System Object) Number of threads waiting Should never be more than 2 for a sustain period Interrupts/Sec (Processor Object) Calls to the processor that a piece of hardware needs attention % Processor Time (Processor Object) % of time the processor is in use Recommended Counters

  35. For disk troubleshooting Current Disk Queue Length (Physical Disk) Should never be more tha 2 times the number of spindles % Disk Time (Physical Disk) % time disk are being used Up to 905 is good Avg. Disk Bytes/Transfer (Physical Disk Object) Should be 20K or more May be an application problem Disk Reads/Sec (Physical Disk Object) Disk Writes/Sec (Physical Disk Object) Recommended Counters

  36. For network troubleshooting Bytes Total/Sec (Server Object) Consistently high may indicate memory needed Work Item Shortages (Server Object) Incoming requests can’t be processed Bytes Received/Sec (Network Interface Object) Bytes Sent/Sec (Network Interface Object) Packets Outbound Errors (Network Interface Object) Recommended Counters

  37. For AD troubleshooting DRA Inbound Bytes Total/Sec (NTDS Object) DRA Inbound Full Sync. Objects Remaining (NTDS Object) Can determine how many updates arer taking place DRA Inbound Objects Applied/Sec (NTDS Object) Recommended Counters

  38. For AD troubleshooting DRA Inbound Object Updates Remaining in Packet (NTDS Object) DC may be taking too long to update DRA Pending Replication Synchronization (NTDS Object) Number of synchronization requests waiting Recommended Counters

  39. Using System Monitor • Displays information when Performance tool is first opened • Data display related to memory, processor, and physical disk objects on local computer • Three possible views • Graphs • Histogram • Report • System Monitor toolbar used to control various functions

  40. Using System Monitor (continued)

  41. Performance Objects and Counters • Performance monitoring is a regular maintenance task • Performance counters: • % processor time • % interrupt time • Pages/second • Page faults/second • % disk time • Avg. disk queue length

  42. Using System Monitor (continued) • Collecting data is easy, interpreting data is harder • Often there are causal relationships that aren’t obvious • Several alternatives for saving and viewing historical data • Html files • Log files • Databases

  43. Performance Logs and Alerts • Allows you to automatically collect data (locally or remotely) and view it using another program • Tasks: collect data in different formats, view data, configure parameters, configure and manage logging sessions, set up alerts • Three options available in tool: counter logs, trace logs, and alerts

  44. Three options Counter Logs Trace Logs Alerts System Monitor Logging Options

  45. Counter Logs allow you to group counters and save them to a template System Monitor Logging Options

  46. The Log Files tab System Monitor Logging Options

  47. The Counter Logs Log Files tab System Monitor Logging Options

  48. The Counter Logs Schedule tab System Monitor Logging Options

  49. WBEM Trace Logs allow you to configure samples of data to be collected from providers on the system Alerts can log an event to the Application Log send a network message start a log file run an external application System Monitor Logging Options