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Foundations for exploration. The innovation and discoveries during the Renaissance led Europeans to want to know more In the late 1400s and 1500s, this desire led to voyages of discovery to find new lands and routes to known areas. This time period is the Age of exploration.
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Foundations for exploration • The innovation and discoveries during the Renaissance led Europeans to want to know more • In the late 1400s and 1500s, this desire led to voyages of discovery to find new lands and routes to known areas. • This time period is the Age of exploration
Motivations for exploration • Explorers had 4 types of motivation: • Search for Wealth • Spread their faith • Fame and Glory • Curiosity
New Technologies facilitate exploration • No matter the reasons, Europeans could never have made their voyages w/o key advances in technology: • Compass • Brought to Europe from China. • Let sailors know which direction was north. • Astrolabe • Europeans learned to use from Muslims. • Calculate location based on the position of the sun and the stars in relation to horizon. • Learned to build ships that rode lower in water • Withstood large waves and could hold more cargo • Caravel • A light, fast sailing ship that could be equipped w/ cannons • Highly maneuverable: • Steered with rudder in rear • Lateen sails (caught wind from all directions)
Main countries involved • Portugal • Spain • France • England • Netherlands • Spain and Portugal Start it
Portugal • 1st Sponsor of countries exploration: • Prince Henry • Becomes known as Henry the Navigator • Main Goal: • Find a water route around Africa to India • Places they went • Around Africa, India , and Brazil • Important Explorers • Vasco da Gama – 1st to sail around Africa to India (1497) • Pedro Cabral – Sighted and claimed Brazil (1500)
Spain • 1st Sponsor of countries exploration: • King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella • Main Goal: • Find a Western Sea Route to China • Places they went: • Caribbean, and circumnavigated the globe • Important Explorers • Christopher Columbus – Stumbled on the America’s (1492) • Amerigo Vespucci – Figured out Columbus did not find the Indies but a new continent (1502) • Ferdinand Magellan – His crew was the 1st to circumnavigate the globe (1519) • Killed in fight w/ Philippine natives; Juan Sebastian de Elcano finished trip
Columbus Vespucci Magellan
England • 1st Sponsor of countries exploration: • King Henry VII and then Queen Elizabeth I • Main Goal: • Find the Northwest Passage to Asia • Places they went: • Canada • Important Explorers • John Cabot – Stumbled onto Canada (1497) • Sir Francis Drake – Sent around S. America to explore west coast, then circumnavigated the globe to come home (1580) • Henry Hudson – Discovered Hudson Bay (1607)
Cabot Drake Hudson
France • 1st Sponsor of countries exploration: • King Francis I • Main Goal: • Find a Northwest Passage • Places they went: • Canada, St. Lawrence River through the Great Lakes and down the Mississippi • Important Explorers • Jacques Cartier – Found Newfoundland, St. Lawrence River and claimed New France (Canada) (1534)
Netherlands • 1st Sponsor of countries exploration: • Dutch East India Company • Main Goal: • Find a Northeast or Northwest Passage • Places they went: • North of Scandinavia and then Manhattan Island • Important Explorers • Henry Hudson – Same explorer for the English, Explored Hudson River (1609)
Do now: • Write test type questions about the new technologies and the goals/explorers for each country. • Summarize the notes in 3-5 sentences. • Read “Reasons for Exploration” and answer the questions. Turn in if you finish… Homework if you don’t!