Purpose Why is it necessary to cite the sources you use to support what you write in your papers? • Gives weight to your argument • If other people, with more experience, say the same thing as you, it strengthens your argument. • Gives credit to those who put in the work • Some people spend most of their lives coming up with answers to difficult questions. Referencing them honors their hard work. • Allows people to validate your information • References allow people to check where you got your information, to make sure you aren’t making it up
How to reference What questions are answered in an APA-style reference? • Who wrote the document? • When was it written? • What is its title? • Where was it published? • Who published it?
Referencing print sources Suppose you use information about a book titled California: What It’s All About, by Gerald R. Smith and Thomas T. Ferguson that was published by Worth Publishers of St. Paul, Minnesota in 2001 General Format • Author, A.A. (Year of Publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher
Referencing Print Sources Who wrote the document? • Smith, G.R., & Ferguson, T.T. When was it written? • Smith, G.R., & Ferguson, T.T. (2001). What is its title? • Smith, G.R., & Ferguson, T.T. (2001). California: What it’s all about.
Referencing Print Material Where was it published? • Smith, G.R., & Ferguson, T.T. (2001). California: What it’s all about.St. Paul, MN: Who published it? • Smith, G.R., & Ferguson, T.T. (2001). California: What it’s all about. St. Paul, MN: Worth
Referencing Print Sources • How many of you plan to get most of your information from books? • So, how do you reference online sources?
Referencing Online Sources General Format • Author, A.A., & Author, B.B. (Year of Publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://Web address • Don’t be lazy!!! • Include as much of the above information as possible • Hunt around the web page for the above information
Referencing Online Resources Davis, M. (1998). Stepping outside the box. Retrieved from http://www.monolake.org/ mlc/outsidebox
Referencing Online Sources • There are ways to reference many other types of sources. • If you use a different source of information during your research, use online resources, such as Purdue OWL, to figure things out. • http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ • Or ask me for help
Quiz Time • We are going to see how much you learned by taking a quiz. • It’s open notes, so use the information you wrote down.
APA Citations Short Quotations • Citation in-text with author, date, and page • She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.
APA Citations Short Quotations • According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199). • Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers?
APA Citations Long Quotations • Quotations 40+ words are placed in their own freestanding block indented 0.5 inches • No quotes • Jones's (1998) study found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)
APA Citations Paraphrasing • When paraphrasing you need only give the author and date. Though a page number is encouraged if possible • According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. • APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199).
References • Paiz, J.M., & Angeli, E., (2012). Reference list: Electronic sources (web publications). Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue. edu/owl/resource/560/10/