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Child Development

Child Development

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Child Development

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  1. Child Development

  2. Growth and Development • Growth—increase in size or weight • Development—increase in physical, intellectual, emotional and social skills • Average—identifies midpoint of range • Anything within that range will be typical or normal

  3. Life Cycle Stages • Prenatal-conception to birth • Infant - birth to one year • Toddler - 1 to 3 years • Preschooler - 3 to 5 years • School age - 5 to 12 years • Adolescence -13 to adulthood(19 and up)

  4. Types of Development • Physical development -a developmental process that refers to the physical growth of a person’s body • Emotional development -a developmental process that refers to the ability to experience, express, and control emotions • Intellectual development -a developmental process that refers to the growth of the brain and the use of mental skills • Moral development -developmental process that refers to the ability to know right from wrong • Social development -a developmental process that refers to the way people relate to others around them

  5. Infant Physical Development • Newborns have “ soft spots called fontanels(open spaces in a baby's head where the bones have not joined) which are made of membrane and cartilage(soft, elastic like tissue that is softer than bone)which harden into bone by about 18 months of age. • Colic(acute abdominal pain caused by abnormal conditions in the bowels) is common .

  6. Infant Physical Development • Cuts their first deciduous teeth (non-permanent teeth or "baby teeth“) around 6-9 months of age. • Hand-eye coordination (the ability to move hands and fingers precisely in relation to what is seen) improves. • Crawls at 7-9 months

  7. Infant Physical Development • Motor skills- abilities that depend on use and control of muscles • Newborns can’t control their movements, but motor skills develop quickly and unevenly as reflexes disappear

  8. Raises head and chest when lying on stomach Supports upper body with arms when lying on stomach Stretches legs out and kicks when lying on stomach or back Pushes down on legs when feet are placed on a firm surface Large Motor Skills

  9. Small Motor Skills Opens and shuts hands Brings hand to mouth Takes swipes at dangling objects with hands Grasps and shakes hand toys

  10. Rolls both ways (front to back, back to front) Sits with, and then without, support on hands Supports whole weight on legs Large Motor Skills

  11. Reaches with one hand Transfers object from hand to hand Uses hand to rake objects Small Motor Skills

  12. Reaches sitting position without assistance Crawls forward on belly Assumes hands-and-knees position Creeps on hands and knees Gets from sitting to crawling or prone (lying on stomach) position Pulls self up to stand Walks holding on to furniture Stands momentarily without support May walk two or three steps without support Large Motor Skills

  13. Uses pincer grasp Bangs two objects together Puts objects into container Takes objects out of container Lets objects go voluntarily Pokes with index finger Tries to imitate scribbling Small Motor Skills

  14. Toddler Physical Development • Weaned from bottle at one year. • Improving large motor skills (the use and control of the large muscles of the back, legs, shoulders and arms) allows for steadier walking and better posture. • Walks up and down stairs putting each foot on the stair before moving to the next before learning to step on at a time.

  15. Toddler Physical Development • Toilet training begins when control of the sphincter muscle is established. • Eats with utensils.

  16. Walks alone Pulls toys behind her while walking Carries large toy or several toys while walking Begins to run Stands on tiptoe Kicks a ball Climbs onto and down from furniture unassisted Walks up and down stairs holding on to support Large Motor Skills

  17. Small Motor Skills Scribbles on his or her own Turns over container to pour out contents Builds tower of four blocks or more Might use one hand more often than the other

  18. Large Motor Skills Climbs well Walks up and down stairs, alternating feet(one foot per stair step) Kicks ball Runs easily Pedals tricycle Bends over easily without falling

  19. Small Motor Skills Makes up-and-down, side-to-side, and circular lines with pencil or crayon Turns book pages one at a time Builds a tower of more than six blocks Holds a pencil in writing position Screws and unscrews jar lids, nuts, and bolts Turns rotating handles

  20. Preschooler Physical Development • Loves to run, skip, jump, hop • Learning to throw and catch ball • Shows strong hand preference • Participates in cooperative play (activity in which children actually play with one another)

  21. Preschooler Physical Development • Improved small motor skills (an ability that depends on the use and control of the finer muscles of the wrist, finger, and ankles) • build with blocks • put together puzzles • draw and color

  22. Large Motor Skills Hops and stands on one foot up to five seconds Goes upstairs and downstairs without support Kicks ball forward Throws ball overhand Catches bounced ball most of the time Moves forward and backward with agility

  23. Small Motor Skills Copies square shapes Draws a person with two to four body parts Uses scissors Draws circles and squares Begins to copy some capital letters

  24. Large Motor Skills Stands on one foot for 10 seconds or longer Hops, somersaults Swings, climbs May be able to skip

  25. Small Motor Skills Copies triangle and other shapes Draws person with body Prints some letters Dresses and undresses without help Uses fork, spoon, and (sometimes) a table knife Usually cares for own toilet needs

  26. School-Age Physical Development • Develops more adult like body proportions • Further refined motor skills • ties own shoes • builds models/crafts • Improved coordination • dances to music • Prefers running to walking

  27. Adolescent Physical Development • The most dramatic changes occur due to puberty(the set of changes that gives a child a physically mature body able to reproduce). • Puberty begins earlier for girls. They get their growth spurt around 11 and boys about 13. They may also begin menstruation (monthly process, which occurs in women from adolescence through middle age, in which blood is discharged from the uterus through the reproductive tract )

  28. Adolescent Physical Development • Girls and boys experience different kinds of changes called sex characteristics. There are two types: • primary sex characteristics (physical changes related to the developmentof the reproductive organs) • secondary sex characteristics (all physicalchanges related to puberty) • facial hair and change in voice for boys • breast development and widening of hips in girls.

  29. Infant Intellectual Development • Learns through the senses • Develops a memory • Recognizes and responds to own name • Understands cause and effect • Learning object permanence (the concept in which an infant learns that people or things exist even when they are gone from sight)

  30. Intellectual Finds partially hidden object Explores with hands and mouth Struggles to get objects that are out of reach

  31. Intellectual • Explores objects in many different ways (shaking, banging, throwing, dropping) • Finds hidden objects easily • Looks at correct picture when the image is named • Imitates gestures • Begins to use objects correctly (drinking from cup, brushing hair, dialing phone, listening to receiver)

  32. Toddler Intellectual Development • Learns through exploring and imitation(learning that occurs by watching and copying the actions of others) • Responds to simple instructions (ex. Put paper in trash.) • Points to pictures of familiar objects and parts of own body

  33. Toddler Intellectual Development • Uses the word “no” effectively • Develops a better understanding of cause and effect. • Holds up fingers to indicate age. • Improves ability to reason

  34. Intellectual Finds objects even when hidden under two or three covers Begins to sort by shapes and colors Begins make-believe play

  35. Intellectual Makes mechanical toys work Matches an object in his hand or room to a picture in a book Plays make-believe with dolls, animals, and people Completes puzzles with three or four pieces Understands concept of “two”

  36. Preschooler Intellectual Development • Uses classification(the process of mentally grouping objects or ideas into categories or groups based on some unique feature) for single categories like car, dog, cat, color, shape • “Why?” is their favorite question • Has difficulty understanding concepts of time • yesterday, tomorrow, later

  37. Preschooler Intellectual Development • Exhibits increased attention span and concentration • Confuses fact and fantasy. Tells “tall tales” • Responds well to directed learning experiences(learning experiences that are planned with a specific goal in mind)

  38. Intellectual Correctly names some colors Understands the concept of counting and may know a few numbers Tries to solve problems from a single point of view Begins to have a clearer sense of time Follows three-part commands Recalls parts of a story Understands the concepts of "same" and "different“ Engages in fantasy play

  39. Intellectual Can count 10 or more objects Correctly names at least four colors Better understands the concept of time Knows about things used every day in the home (money, food, appliances)

  40. School-Age Intellectual Development • Beginning to master seriation (the ability to arrange items in an increasing or decreasing order based on weight, volume, number, or size; grouping by a common property) • Enjoys hobbies and crafts • Beginning to understand concept of time

  41. School-Age Intellectual Development • Understanding reversibility(capable of going backward or forward through a series ofactions or changes) allows the child to be creative. • rolling a ball of clay into a ball and then flattening it out • smoothing out a crumbled piece of paper • pouring liquid into various shaped and sized containers

  42. Adolescent Intellectual Development • Develops ability to think abstractly. • Becomes aware of world issues like conservation (protecting the environment and natural resources against waste and harm) • Becomes concerned with moral values.

  43. Infant Emotional & Social Development • Bonding (forming strong emotional ties between individuals) occurs between the infant and caregiver (a person that provides care for and meets the needs of someone else). • Very attached to the primary caregiver (the person that will provide the most care and spend the most time with a child or another person) and enjoys their companionship

  44. Infant Emotional & Social Development • Experiences separation anxiety (a child's fear of being away from parents, familiar caregivers, or the normal environment) • Strangeranxiety(a baby's fear of unfamiliar people)

  45. Social & Emotional Begins to develop a social smile Enjoys playing with other people and may cry when playing stops Becomes more expressive and communicates more with face and body Imitates some movements and facial expressions

  46. Social~Emotional Enjoys social play Interested in mirror images Responds to other people’s expressions of emotion and appears joyful often

  47. Social~Emotional Shy or anxious with strangersCries when mother or father leavesEnjoys imitating people in his playShows specific preferences for certain people and toysTests parental responses to his behaviorMay be fearful in some situationsPrefers mother and/or regular caregiver over all othersRepeats sounds or gestures for attentionFinger-feeds himselfExtends arm or leg to help when being dressed

  48. Toddler Emotional & Social Development • Temper tantrums(a sudden outburst of anger in which children may kick, scream, cry, or holdtheir breath) are common • Self-centered and demanding • Possessive and refuses to share

  49. Toddler Emotional & Social Development • Prefers parallel play(activity in which children play side by side without interacting) • Desires consistency • May experience aggressive behavior like biting, hitting and pushing

  50. Social~Emotional Imitates behavior of others, especially adults and older children More aware of herself as separate from others More excited about company of other children Demonstrates increasing independence Begins to show defiant behavior Separation anxiety increases toward midyear then fades