Basic introductory concepts • State • A government with a capitol and border • Examples – the USA, Canada and Russia • Nation • A national group, often the same as “ethnic group” (or linguistic group) • The Pottawatomi “nation”, the Flemish nation, the Thai nation • “nation-state” • When the borders of a “nation” match the border of a single state • Centrifugal forces • Centripetal forces
Cooperation among States – the “supranational” institutuion • Political and military cooperation • The United Nations • Regional military alliances • Economic cooperation • The European Union
United Nations Members Fig. 8-1: The UN has increased from 51 members in 1945 to 191 in 2003.
The European Union and NATO Fig. 8-12: NATO and the European Union have expanded and accepted new members as the Warsaw Pact and COMECON have disintegrated.
Defining States and the Development of the “State Concept” • Problems of defining states • Korea: one state or two? • China and Taiwan: one state or two? • Varying sizes of states
Antarctica: National Claims Fig. 8-2: Antarctica is the only large landmass that is not part of a state, but several countries claim portions of it.
Development of the “state concept” • “City state” emerged with agriculture • Multicultural Empires eventually emerge and become the historical norm • Treaty of Westphalia – 1648 – the establishment of the principle of “sovereignty” • The ideal of the “nation-state” – 19th century
The Fertile Crescent Fig. 8-3: The Fertile Crescent was the site of early city-states and a succession of ancient empires.
Colonial Possessions, 1914 Fig. 8-4: By the outbreak of World War I, European states held colonies throughout the world, especially throughout Africa and in much of Asia.
Colonial Possessions, 2003 Fig. 8-5: Most of the remaining colonies are small islands in the Pacific or Caribbean.
Boundaries and Boundary Problems of States • Shapes of states • Five basic shapes • Types of boundaries • Boundaries inside states • Unitary and federal states • Trend toward federal government • Electoral geography
State morphologies: (1) compact, (2) elongated, (3) fragmented, (4) prorupted, and (5) perforated
African States Fig. 8-6: Southern, central, and eastern Africa include states that are compact, elongated, prorupted, fragmented, and perforated.
Types of borders: frontier, geometric and contested Fig. 8-8: Several states in the Arabian Peninsula are separated by frontiers rather than precise boundaries.
Aozou Strip: A Geometric Boundary Fig. 8-9: The straight boundary between Libya and Chad was drawn by European powers, and the strip is the subject of controversy between the two countries.
Division of Cyprus: a contested border Fig. 8-10: Cyprus has been divided into Green and Turkish portions since 1974.
European Boundary Changes Fig. 8-13: Twentieth-century boundary changes in Europe, 1914 to 2003. Germany’s boundaries changed after each world war and the collapse of the Soviet Union.
“Gerrymandering” Fig. 8-11: State legislature boundaries were drawn to maximize the number of legislators for Republicans in Florida and Democrats in Georgia.
PG Case Study: The EU in 2007 • World’s largest supranational union (with 460 million people presently) • 25 member states (internally very diverse, multiple languages and ethnicities) • Established officially in 1992 by the Treaty of European Union • Most significant factors • Single common market • Customs union • Single currency managed by the European central bank (Euro) • Common trade policy • Common agricultural policy • Abolished passport and border checks internally for most member states (greater mobility for people, capital, ideas)
Institutions of the EU • Council of the EU • The EU commission • The European Court of Justice • The European Parliament • The European Central Bank • Yet, there is no official capitol like Washington DC in the US • Rather, these institutions are headquartered in various important cities • BRUSSELS: European Commission • STRASBOURG: European Parliament • LUXEMBOURG CITY: European Court of Justice
Geographical Expansion of the EU • Founding members (“core members”) • Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg
What is the point of the EU?Advantages of the EU… • Peace • Economically-dependent countries rarely go to war with each other • Counterweight to US dominance • Population (it’s bigger) • Economy (about the same size) • Rising importance of the Euro on the global stage • Problem solving abilities • Prosperity – open borders create economic efficiency and economic growth
However, there are “Eurosceptics” • REJECTION of the EURO • Maintain INDEPENDENCE!!
What about Culture?People who identify as European first, their nationality second… • Germany 22% • Belgium 21% • Luxembourg 21% • France 20% • Britain 15% • Denmark 6% • Greece 5%