Speakers and topics • Hilton J. Klein, M.S., V.M.D. • Overview and introduction • Kathryn A. L. Bayne, M.S., Ph.D., D.V.M. • Review of commonly cited facility problems • James F. Taylor, D.V.M., M.S. • Design of facilities - the AAALAC perspective • Stephen T. Kelley, M.S., D.V.M. • Performance standards and facility design and operation
Flexibility and adaptability • Research trends of animal use • Dog and monkey use - USDA reports show decline • Rodent use • Institution dependent • Academic vs. industry • NIH/PHS funding increases • Overall/general animal use • Animal regulations • Dog, monkey space and care - U. S.; Europe
Flexibility and adaptability (Cont’d) • Future • Regulation of rats, mice, birds - space? • Operational issues • Energy • Maintenance • New technologies • Transgenics and new species • Genomics and proteomics • Other drivers for the way animals are used • Social
Facilities operation and design • Scientific programs • Laboratory animals • Veterinarians • Engineers • Community
Building considerations • Research objectives • New construction • Renovation • Flexibility and adaptability • Utilities use • Adjacencies • Operational costs
Operation and design tools(Some examples) • Information sharing - network • Computer aided design • Computational fluid dynamics
Information and management • An Integrated Database for Managing Animal Study Proposals and Animal Inventory for the Small Animal Facility. T. Calzone, J. S. Montijo, M. B. St.Claire, and E. Lamoreaux. 2001. Lab Animal 30(2):28-31. • A Comprehensive, Bar Coded System for the Management of Animal Information in a Research Facility. C. Pryor, D. Frankenfield, H. Klein, W. Terpeluk, S. Washington, N. T. Mourad. 2001. Lab Animal 30(2):36-38. • Software for Lab Animal Facilities. G. Novak and T. Schub. 2001 Lab Animal 30(2):39-43. Conclusion: renovations or construction will require systems for information management access and retrieval for effective colony and facility management.
Design and operational considerations Qualification • Performance standards approach • Factory acceptance testing (FAT) • Dirty cage set up • Microbiology tests • Physical testing • Installation qualification (IQ) • Operational qualification (OQ)
"Performance standards define an outcome in detail and provide criteria for assessing that outcome, but do not limit the methods by which to achieve that outcome."
Standards used • Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (NRC 1996) • EEC 86/609 • CoE Convention • National legislation • Reference resources (“Ag Guide,” AVMA Panel on Euthanasia, etc...)
Summary and conclusions • As demand for animal space changes, we must design, construct, and operate facilities in a flexible and adaptable manner. • The use of R&D resources is rising as new therapeutic targets are identified.
Summary and conclusions (Cont’d) • Animal research resources are coupled to R&D and we must determine strategies to address operational issues through facility design and automation-performance standards. • Team approaches are highly effective for scientists, administration, engineers, lab animal to address and solve space and operational issues.
Summary and conclusions (cont’d) • Certain future areas in lab animal facilities opportune for change include: • Room design and layout • Facility design and layout • New technological advances • Automation
Kathryn A. L. Bayne, M.S., Ph.D., D.V.M.Review of commonlycited facility problems
Over 640 accredited institutions ... … in 18 countries
1. Facility HVAC 2. Facility safety 3. Facility maintenance 4. Facility sanitation 5. Facility design 6. Facility illumination 7. Facility storage 8. Facility security Facilities mandatory deficiencies
The top three deficiencies • IACUC function • Occupational health and safety program • Heating, ventilation and air conditioning system performance
HVAC mandatories(Ranked in order of most common) 1. Data not available at site visit 2. Not maintaining temperature range 3. Not maintaining air changes (ventilation) 4. Not maintaining humidity range 5. Not meeting recirculated air standards 6. Animal room temperature and humidity not monitored
Common HVAC findings • Air exchange rate (10-15 ach) • Relative humidity levels • Air recirculation/filtration • Air pressure differentials
HVAC purposes (Guide) • Supply adequate oxygen • Remove thermal loads • Dilute gaseous and particulate contaminants • Adjust moisture content • Create static-pressure differentials
Space, temperature and humidity criteria • Dry bulb temperature • Adjustable +/- 2° • Fixed, minimum 66°F or 68°F • Individual room or zone
Space, temperature and humidity criteria • Relative humidity • Adjustable or fixed, 30-70% RH • Individual room or zone
HVAC purposes(NIH Ventilation Design Handbook) • Balance air quality, animal comfort and energy efficiency to provide cage environments that optimize animal welfare and research efficiency. • Provide a healthy and comfortable environment for researchers and animal caregivers.
Factors • Room size • Air change rates • Pressurization • Type and location of diffusers • Type and location of racks/cages
Factors • Species • Bedding type • Cage change frequency
Contains: • Details on codes, regulations and standards. • Laboratory animal facilities planning and design including architectural finishes and costs issues. • Overview of equipment and mechanical systems. Available in CD ROM or Spiral Bound book.
James F. Taylor, D.V.M., M.S.Design of facilities – the AAALAC perspective
Critical elements for success • Define what the facility needs to accomplish • Provide flexibility to accommodate future needs • Knowledgeable users and A&E/planners: • Plan, program, design, and construct • Define decision making matrix • Consider operational and life-cycle costs • Review, review, review! • Constantly focus on ‘Achilles heels’ • Include commissioning/validation
Program needs • Animal procedures - vivarium or laboratories • Surgical or diagnostic radiography suites • In-house diagnostic needs • Need for floor drains • Containment/contamination control • Imaging requirements • Sizing major installed equipment • Impact of design on labor costs
Separation of functions • Animal ops from personnel areas • Disease-status separation • Species conflicts/incompatibilities • Noise
Operational adjacencies • Established colonies vs. new arrivals • Cage sanitation • Cage storage/cage staging • Procedure rooms • Surgical suite and associated support spaces • Loading dock and associated in/out functions • Indirect adjacencies requiring accommodation
Horizontal vs. vertical design • Elevators • Stairways • Security • Windows/external light • Mechanical systems distribution • Support columns • Security
Traffic flow vs.efficiency of design • System of corridors • Containment/contamination control • Safety and security (emergency egress) • Personnel entering or using facility • Animal resource staff; research staff • Maintenance/service staff; Visitors • Access to support spaces (offices, training) • Horizontal versus vertical construction
Facility integrity considerations • Seismic • Vibration • External water - vertical & horizontal • Inherent insulation • Acoustic control • Floor loading considerations
Institutional infrastructure • Electrical • Central steam & chilled water • Water and sewage systems • Communications • Security