American Ethnicity:Ethnicity and Ethnic Relations Presented By: Meghan, Jaclyn, Brittany, Dave, and Robbie
Ethnicity and Ethnic Relations • Ethnic strife exists everywhere. People learn to hate each of based on the differences • People of different ethnic heritages may feel threatened by the heritage of others which cause this hatred thru fear of other ethnics • Race is basically implied as the biological difference among people that are transmitted from generation to generation. (Ex. Skin, color, facial, stature) • These differences are superficial and do not really mark a clear boundary. (Those who are of mixed ethnicity but have light skin or of the opposite and have darker skin.)
Ethnic Groups • Ethnic groups is a subpopulation of individuals who are labeled and categorized by general population as being of a particular ethnicity. • Subpopulation made of individuals distinguished by their history , distinctive behaviors, organization, culture, and superficial biological differences. • Minority Group- Ethnic subpopulation in a society who are discriminated against by a more powerful subpopulation. Usually victim is of the least numerous, of minority, but this is not always true which raises the question of who can discriminate? The more powerful ethnic subpopulation is the superordinate group and the ethnic subpopulation of lesser power is the subordinate group.
Discrimination • Discrimination is the process by which an individual group denies another group access to valued resources. • Discrimination is also ethnical. When members of more superordinate group denies those of the subordinate group valued resources. • Reverse Discrimination is when members of the subordinate group deny those who are of the superordinate even though those who may no longer discriminate anymore
Types of Discrimination • Genocide – When members of an ethnic subpopulation are killed. An entire ethnic group is exterminated. • Expulsion – a less intense form of discrimination because of those who are exiled from a society retain access to at least one highly valued resource, life. Expulsion is usually forced. • Segregation – a process of spatially isolating members of an ethnic subpopulation in areas where they can’t have the same access to valued resources as people do who are not isolated. • Exclusion – a pattern of discrimination that denies members of an ethnic group certain positions, independent of the effects of segregation. An example of this would be slaves and African Americans before the civil rights movement because they were denied basic citizenship rights.
Selective inclusion – the process of allowing members from ethnic subpopulations into certain positions, while at the same time excluding them from other positions. An example of this would be how Asian immigrants are given access to ownership of small retail businesses but excluded from most white and blue collar positions. • Abusive Practices – patterns of action against the victims of discrimination by members of other ethnic groups. • Environmental racism – environmental problems are usually apparent in neighborhoods by poor, ethnic and powerless people. An example is that disposal sites are generally near the poor neighborhoods. • Racial Profiling – Officers use ethnic markers to assess the likelihood of potential crime. Members of particular ethnic populations are likely to be singled out for special surveillance and potential harassment by officers. Racial Profiling occurs every single day in the United States.
Ethnic Stratification- Discrimination of ethnic subpopulations • refers to several processes: • the amount, level, and types of resources an ethnic subpopulation typically receives (ex. Jobs, education, health, money, power, and prestige) • the defree to which these resource shares locate most members of an ethnic population in various social hierarchies • the extent to which these resource shares to contribute to behaviors, organiations, and cultural systems, that provide justification for dominant group for making the ethnic subpopulations targets for discrimination.
Latino Example : • relatively low incomes • less education • varies between which subpopulation an individual belongs to.
Discrimination causes members of an ethnic subpopulation to: • Be overrepresented in lower and working classes • Be overrepresented in narrow middle class positions, usually in various kinds of small businesses.
The higher the poverty rate, the more and ethnic population has been subject to discrimination. • These people of poverty are denied equal acces to quality education which leads to a chain reaction. • Lack of education >>>>>Poor Jobs >>>>>>Low incomes >>>>>>Poverty
Figure 1.1- pg. 14 • Table 1.2 - pg. 16 • Table 1.3 – pg. 17 • Table 1.4 – pg. 18 • Table 1.5 – pg. 19 • Table 1.6 – pg. 19 • - These kinds of data give us only the outcome of ethnic stratification, they don’t tell us how discrimination actually works. The next chapters lead into this.
Adaptations to prejudice and discrimination • Passive acceptance • Marginal participation • Assimilation • Withdrawal and self-segregation • Rebellion and revolt • Organized protest • Ethnognesis
Passive Acceptance • A lot of the times if the power of an ethnic group is small and the magnitude of the discrimination is great, members of the group may have no choice to accept the discrimination. • Passive acceptance is not passive but rather active manipulation of a situation.
Marginal Participation • Most of the time subordinate ethnic subpopulations can find a niche where they can use their creative resources and prosper. • This is possible when the majority is not inclined to enter a specialized field. Marginal participation are mores effective when the minority population is small and does not enter areas dominated by the majority.
Assimilation • By definition assimilation is the process by which the members of an ethnic group become part of the broader culture and society, losing their distinctive character. • Italians, Irish and Germans have become largely assimilated while African Americans on the other hand have a more difficult time assimilating because of their visibility and the resulting ease with which the majority can locate them as targets of discrimination.
Self-segregation • Another adaptation to discrimination is withdrawal and the creation of a self sustaining "society" within the broader society. this is know as self segregation which enables a population to create and support their own communities, businesses, schools, leadership, church and other social forms. • Self segregation is difficult to maintain. Opportunities are necessarily limited compared to those in the broader society. As a result some seek these outside opportunities.
Rebellion and Revolt • When subordinate ethnic subpopulations do not always accept, assimilate, withdraw, or marginally participate, they rebel. • This rebellion can take a number of forms one being general hostility and aggressive behavior toward the majority. • All forms of rebellion involve minorities striking back and venting their frustrations which can result in mobilizing people for mass killings.
Organized Protest • Sometimes subordinate ethnic groups become organized to make broad-based and concerted efforts to change patterns of discrimination. This is part of a larger social movement called organized protests. • Beginning with sit-ins and freedom rides in the 1960’s the civil rights movement represents such effort. Sometimes this created successful nation organizations that effectively change many legal and social patterns.
Ethnogenesis • At times, prejudicial beliefs and patterns of discrimination assume that individuals from diverse cultural and ancestral backgrounds are "all alike". • Yet despite the diverse cultures across America, prejudice and discrimination often treat target ethnics as if they are all the same. • Ethnogeneis is often used to explain how ethnic subpopulations reveal a mix of characteristics, some involving assimilation into the dominate culture and others unique to their particular backgrounds.