By PWS students 2008 Broken leg by Michelle and Long Broken arm by Reside Sprained ankle by Ruza and Anh Stroke by Parveen Heart attack by Kusum Spider bite by Rita Sun stroke by Stephen Burn by Henry Shock by Thu Cut artery by Janice? Neck injury by Hyun First Aid Research
Broken LegMichelle and Long Symptoms: • The major symptoms of a broken leg are pain, swelling, and deformity. (Bent) • Pain caused by a broken bone is typically severe. Holding the bone still will decrease pain. Movement of the broken bone will increase pain. • Swelling and bruising over the area of a break are common.
Treatment for Broken Leg • If an injury happens and you suspect a break, remember the following: • Immobilize the leg as much as possible until help arrives. • Rest. Try to keep from aggravating the injury. • Apply an ice pack wrapped in a pillowcase or towel to decrease swelling. • If possible, keep the leg elevated with pillows or cushions to decrease swelling. • Often with a broken leg, an operation is necessary. For this reason, do not let someone with a broken leg eat or drink anything until seen by the doctor. Always ask the doctor if it would be OK to eat before doing so.
Broken Arm Symptoms • The major symptoms of a broken arm are pain, swelling, and deformity. A broken arm can be very obvious but may require an x-ray to diagnose. • Pain caused by a broken bone is typically severe. Holding the bone still will decrease pain. Movement of the broken bone will increase pain. • Swelling and bruising over the area of a break are common. • Bones that have been weakened somehow can be broken more easily. • Reside Salievski • http://www.emedicinehealth.com/pdfguides/first_aid/broken-arm-treatment-61787.pdf
Treatment • If an injury happens and you suspect a break, remember the following: • Immobilize the arm as much as possible until help arrives. • Rest. Try to keep from aggravating the injury. • Apply an ice pack wrapped in a pillowcase or towel to decrease swelling. • If possible, keep the arm elevated with pillows or cushions to decrease swelling.
Sprained Ankle Symptoms A sprained ankle is where ligaments of the ankle are torn. • inflammation • localized pain • swelling • loss of function • loss of normal limb function • elasticity of ligament decrease By Ruza
Treatment for Sprained Ankle • Rest: The sprain should be rested. • Ice: Ice should be applied immediately to the sprain to minimize swelling and ease pain. • Compression: Dressings, bandages, or ace-wraps should be used to immobilize the sprain and provide support. • Elevation: Keeping the sprained joint elevated above heart level will also help to minimize swelling
SPRAINED ANKLE Minor sprain is when a ligament is stretched or partially torn. In severe sprains the ligament is completely torn. Sometimes the end of the bone to which a ligament is attached can crack. By Anh Tran http://hcd2.bupa.co.uk/fact_sheets/html/Sprained_ankle.html#1
Treatment for Sprained Ankle • Early treatment • All soft tissue injuries should receive the same immediate first aid treatment. Treatment follows the RICE procedure, which stands for the following. • Rest the injury initially, then re-introduce movement so you don't lose too much muscle strength. • Ice packs or a bag of frozen peas wrapped in a towel should be applied to your ankle to reduce swelling and bruising. You could also immerse your ankle in ice. You should not apply ice directly to your skin as it can give you an "ice burn" - place a cloth between the ice and skin. • Compress your ankle by bandaging it to support the injury and help decrease swelling. • Elevateyour ankle by resting your foot above the level of your heart and keep it supported. • Further treatment will vary according to how badly you have sprained your ankle. • Applying heat - eg warm baths or a hot water bottle - may be soothing. They encourage blood flow, the opposite effect of ice, so these treatments should not be used during the first two days while swelling is developing
STROKE Treatment The FAST test is aneasy way to recognise and remember the signs of stroke or a TIA.Using the FAST test involves asking three simple questions. If the person has a problem with any of these functions, dial triple zero (000) for an ambulance immediately. • Call 000 • If the person is conscious: • lie the person down with their head and shoulders raised and supported (use pillows or cushions); • keep them at a comfortable temperature; • loosen any tight clothing; • wipe away any secretions from the mouth; • make sure the airway is clear and open; • assure the person that help is on the way (they may be able to communicate by squeezing your hands if they can’t speak) and; • do not give them anything to eat or drink. • If the person is unconscious • Put them in the recovery position. Continue to monitor their airway and breathing, and be ready to resume the DRABC plan as necessary. • Even if the symptoms are short-lived — a ‘mini-stroke’— ensure the person seeks immediate medical help, as these symptoms can be a warning sign of a future stroke. by Parveen
Heart AttackBy Kusum Jayant Symptoms: • Sudden chest pain. • On the left side of the body • Shortness of breath. • Discomfort in the upper body Other symptoms • Often there may also be difficulty breathing, nausea or vomiting, a cold sweat, or a feeling of being dizzy or light-headed. • http://www.heartfoundation.org.au/Heart_Information/Warning_Signs.htm
Treatment • . • Stop what you are doing and rest - now! • If you are with someone, tell them what you are experiencing. • If your symptoms are severe, get worse quickly or last for 10 minutes (even if they are mild), this is an emergency. Get help fast. Call triple zero (000)* and ask for an ambulance. • Don't hang up. Wait for advice from the operator. • If you are with someone who may be having a heart attack, take charge and follow the steps above. Stay with the person until the ambulance arrives. • In all situations, when heart attack warning signs are experienced, call 000* and ask for an ambulance. The operator will give you advice about what to do before the ambulance arrives.
Red-Back Spider Bite Signs and symptoms • Sharp pain at bite site • Person will sweat a lot • Nausea, vomiting and pain • Headache • Muscle weakness or spasms By Rita
Managing a Red-Back spider Bite • Follow DRABCD • Lie casualty down • Calm Casualty • Management: • Apply cold pack/compress to area to lesson pain (a cold compress can be a cool wet rag or frozen veges) • Seek medical aid
Sunstroke Symptoms • Headache, nausea, dizziness • Red, dry, very hot skin (sweating has ceased) • Pulse-strong & rapid • Small pupils • Very high fever • May become extremely disoriented • Unconsciousness and possible convulsions http://www.kooltie.com/heatstroke.html Stephen Yip
First Aid for Sun Stroke SUN STROKE IS LIFE THREATENING! • Remove victim to cooler location, out of the sun • Loosen or remove clothing and immerse victim in very cool water if possible • If immersion isn't possible, cool victim with water, or wrap in wet sheets and fan for quick evaporation • Use cold compresses-especially to the head & neck area, also to armpits and groin • Seek medical attention immediately--continue first aid to lower temp. until medical help takes over • Do NOT give any medication to lower fever--it will not be effective and may cause further harm • Do NOT use an alcohol rub • It is not advisable to give the victim anything by mouth (even water) until the condition has been stabilized.
BURN Symptoms Burns destroy skin, which controls the amount of heat our bodies retain or release, holds in fluids, and protects us from infection. While burns on fingers and hands are usually not dangerous, burns injuring even relatively small areas of skin can develop serious complications. By Henry ZHANG
Treatment • 1 Make sure that both the person hurt and you are safe (for example, well away from the fire, or chemicals or power source). • 2 Call 000 for serious burns • 3 Take off any clothes or jewellery around the burned part of the body. • 4 Use cold running water to cool the burn for 20 minutes - [under the shower is good.] • 5 DO NOT USE ICE • 6 Do not break blisters • 7 Putting cool wet cloths on is okay if there is no tap but they have to be kept wet and cool! • 8 Keep the person warm with extra clothes or a blanket on the unburnt parts of the body. • 9 See a doctor or health professional if the burn is bigger than a large coin.
SHOCK Shock may result from trauma, heatstroke, allergic reactions, severe infection, poisoning or other causes. Various signs and symptoms appear in a person experiencing shock: The skin is cool and clammy. It may appear pale or gray. The pulse is weak and rapid. Breathing may be slow and shallow, or hyperventilation (rapid or deep breathing) may occur. Blood pressure is below normal. The eyes lack luster and may seem to stare. Sometimes the pupils are dilated. The person may be conscious or unconscious. If conscious, the person may feel faint or be very weak or confused. Shock sometimes causes a person to become overly excited and anxious. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/first-aid-shock/FA00056 http://www.ehow.com/how_6185_treat-shock-during.html THU LAM
HOW YOU TREAT SHOCK? Body Temperature and Elevation of Feet • Step1- Calm and reassure the injured person. • Step2- Insulate the injured person from cold ground by putting a sleeping pad or blanket underneath him. You may have to log-roll the person if a spinal injury is suspected • Step3- Maintain a comfortable body temperature for the injured person. Cover him with a blanket, replace wet clothing with dry clothing and protect him from the wind or sun. • Step4- Elevate the injured person's legs by 8 to 10 inches. This will increase blood flow to essential organs.
Cut Artery Severe bleeding is most certainly a life-threatening condition, as death can occur within minutes if the bleeding is severe enough. Severe bleeding can occur if: *There are multiple wounds present in the victim, causing a large amount of blood to be lost from more than one area. *An artery is cut. Arteries carry oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the body, and the force with which this blood is pumped is very strong. SYMPTOMS- If an artery is cut, blood is pumped out of the artery with each beat of the heart, spurting blood. http://www.firstaid.com.au/images/bleeding.pdf
Treatment for Cut Artery • Cover wound with a pad, etc and press hard. • Get medical help. Ring 000 • Arterial bleeding from leg: control it by pressing the artery with the heel of your hand against the pelvic bone at the pressure point( bone of hip). • Arterial bleeding from arm: control it by squeezing the artery with the flat of your fingers against the upper arm bone at pressure point • Serious bleeding must be stopped quickly. With a pad of cloth of some kind, grab the wound with your hand and press down firmly. Raising an injured arm or leg above body level will help control bleeding. Wrap something around the pad to keep it in place. Most bleeding can be stopped by direct pressure.
Neck InjurySymptoms • Head held in unusual position • Numbness or tingling that radiates down an arm or leg • Difficulty walking • Paralysis of arms or legs • No bladder or bowel control • Shock (pale, clammy skin; bluish lips and fingernails; acting dazed or semi-conscious) • Unconscious • Stiff neck, headache, or neck pain http://backandneck.about.com/od/conditions/a/neckfirstaid.htm http://health.nytimes.com/health/guides/injury/spinalneck-injury/overview.html By Hyun Sun Kae
How to treat a neck injury • If someone has suffered a severe neck injury, call 000 for life support and help. • Do not move the person, especially the head or neck unless failure to do so presents an immediate threat or urgent danger. • DO NOT attempt to reposition the neck. Do not allow the neck to bend or twist. • Check the person's breathing and circulation. If necessary, begin rescue breathing and CPR. • DO NOT tilt the head back when attempting to open the airway. Instead, place your fingers on the jaw on each side of the head. Lift the jaw forward. • Do not roll the person over unless the person is vomiting or choking on blood, or you need to check for breathing.