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THE CIVIL WAR PART I: APRIL 1861 – DECEMBER 1862
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THE CIVIL WAR PART I: APRIL 1861 – DECEMBER 1862

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  1. THE CIVIL WARPART I: APRIL 1861 – DECEMBER 1862 EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA

  2. ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS • NARROW (THIS LESSON): • HOW AND WHY DID THE UNION WIN THE CIVIL WAR? • WHAT WERE THE EFFECTS OF THE CIVIL WAR? • BROAD: • WHAT ARE THE CAUSES AND EFFECT OF U.S. NATIONALISM AND EXCEPTIONALISM? • HOW DID THE U.S. BECOME A “SUPERPOWER”?

  3. BACKGROUND/ REVIEW • CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WAR (OF SOUTHERN SECESSION): • FUNDAMENTAL ISSUE: STATE SOVEREIGNTY • PLAYED OUT OVER TWO SPECIFIC ISSUES: TARIFFS AND SLAVERY – BOTH WERE CAUSES OF SECESSION • ELECTION OF 1860 - REPUBLICANS GAINED WHITE HOUSE AND 2/3 MAJORITY OF BOTH HOUSED OF CONGRESS  SECESSION

  4. ELECTION OF 1860: THE CANDIDATES (LINCOLN, DOUGLAS, BRECKINRIDGE) TEAR THE COUNTRY APART)

  5. BOTH TARIFF AND SLAVERY ISSUES LED TO SECESSION: • TARIFF: ELECTION OF 1860 MADE PASSAGE OF MORILL TARIFF CERTAIN • SLAVERY: • ELECTION ALSO MADE IT CERTAIN THAT SOUTH WOULD NOT BE ABLE TO EXPAND INTO CUBA AND CENTRAL AMERICA IF IT REMAINED IN THE UNION (SOUTH NEEDED MORE COTTON LAND) • ELECTION MADE IT POSSIBLE THAT EVENTUALLY A CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT BANNING SLAVERY WOULD EVENTUALLY PASS CONGRESS AND BE RATIFIED BY ¾ OF STATES

  6. December, 1860South Carolina Secedes DECEMBER 1860 – SOUTH CAROLINA SECEDED FROM U.S. IMMEDIATELY AFTER ELECTION OF LINCOLN

  7. CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA (EST. FEB. 4, 1861) • PRESIDENT JEFFERSON DAVIS • CONSTITUTION: MODELED ON U.S. CONSTITUTION BUT ALLOWED SLAVERY AND EXPANSION TO NEW TERRITORY AND BANNED PROTECTIVE TARIFFS (SEE FOLLOWING SLIDES) • INITIALLY ALL SECEDING STATES EVENTUALLY JOINED CSA: BUT • N.B. BORDER SLAVE STATES (MARYLAND, DELAWARE, KENTUCKY, MISSOURI AND NEW STATE OF WEST VIRGINIA DID NOT SECEDE – • LINCOLN NEEDED THEM!)

  8. LINCOLN’S FIRST EFFORT TO KEEP THE UNION TOGETHER -- TO PREVENT FURTHER SECESSIONS AND BRING SOUTH CAROLINA BACK • COMPROMISE EFFORTS TO PREVENT OTHER SECESSIONS, WAR PRESIDENT LINCOLN, SENATOR JOHN CRITTENDEN, LINCOLN’S FIRST INAUGURAL PLEDGED SLAVERY WOULD NOT BE ABOLISHED WHERE IT EXISTED

  9. Crittenden Compromise(PropOsedCONSTITUTIONAL AmendmentS) Slavery Forever Protected in States where it existed as of 1860 36030’ applied to all territory (even “hereafter acquired”) North Must Return Fugitive Slaves Federal Territorial Slave Code Slavery Never to be Abolished In D.C. No Federal Interference with the Interstate Slave Trade REJECTED SEN. JOHN CRITTENDON, D. KY)

  10. BUT BY FEBRUARY 1861, THE REST OF THE “NEW SOUTH” (THE DEEP-SOUTH STATES) HAD SECEDED • : • SOUTH CAROLINA TEXAS • GEORGIA MISSISSIPPI • ALABAMA LOUISIANA • FLORIDA • THE OLD SOUTH (VIRGINIA, MARYLAND, NORTH CAROLINA) AND BORDER STATES (TENNESSEE, KENTUCKY, MISSOURI) DID NOT SECEDE THEN

  11. CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA (EST. FEB. 4, 1861) • PRESIDENT JEFFERSON DAVIS • CONSTITUTION: MODELED ON U.S. CONSTITUTION BUT ALLOWED SLAVERY AND EXPANSION TO NEW TERRITORY AND BANNED PROTECTIVE TARIFFS (SEE FOLLOWING SLIDES) • ALL SECEDING STATES EVENTUALLY JOINED CSA: BUT N.B. BORDER SLAVE STATES (MARYLAND, DELAWARE, KENTUCKY, MISSOURI AND NEW STATE OF WEST VIRGINIA DID NOT SECEDE – LINCOLN NEEDED THEM!)

  12. CONSTITUTION OF CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA

  13. The Confederate Seal MOTTO = “With God As Our Vindicator”

  14. SSECESSION MAP– SHOWS WHICH STATES SECEDED AND WHEN

  15. ANOTHER VIEW OF SECESSION: SHOWS DIVISIONS WITHIN SOUTH OVER SECESSION

  16. THE DIVIDED SOUTH (BE SURE TO READ “THE SOUTH’S INNER CIVIL WAR) – FROM 1860 LETTER OF SOUTH CAROLINA CONGRESSMAN ALEXANDER H. STEPHENS (WHO WOULD LATER BECOME VICE PRESIDENT OF THE CSA): • “The seceders intended from the beginning to rule or ruin; and when they find they cannot rule, they will then ruin. They have about enough power for this purpose; not much more; and I doubt not but they will use it. Envy, hate, jealousy, spite … will make devils of men. The secession movement was instigated by nothing but bad passions.” • N.B. MANY SOUTHERNERS WHO OPPOSED SECESSION, INCLUDING ROBERT E. LEE, NONETHELESS SUPPORTED THE CSA BECAUSE AT THE TIME MANY PEOPLE WERE MORE LOYAL TO STATES THAN TO THE U.S.!

  17. The Confederate Seal MOTTO = “With God As Our Vindicator”

  18. Lincoln/Davis LLINCOLN V. DAVIS vs • Born in Kentucky • Self-educated • Congressmen from Illinois • Abolitionist • Minority president (ONLY OF NORTHERN AND BORDER STATES) • Born in Kentucky • GRADUATE OF WEST POINT • MEXICAN WAR VET • Served as U.S. Secretary of War, SECRETARY OF STATE, SENATOR FROM MISSISSIPPI • SLAVEOWNER • PRESIDENT OF CSA

  19. WHY THE NORTH (UNION) FOUGHT THE CIVIL WAR: • AT FIRST, ONLY TO KEEP UNION TOGETHER, NOT TO ABOLISH SLAVERY • IN FIRST INAUGURAL, LINCOLN PLEDGED NOT TO SEEK ABOLITION OF SOUTHERN SLAVERY • CRITTENDEN-JOHNSON RESOLUTION (PASSED BY CONGRESS DECEMBER 1861, AFTER FIRST BATTLE OF BULL RUN): NORTH FIGHTING ONLY TO KEEP UNION TOGETHER, WOULD NOT ABOLISH SLAVERY • LINCOLN’S AUGUST 1862 LETTER TO HORACE GREELEY: • “IIF I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it; and if I could do it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that.”

  20. CIVIL WAR OVERVIEW • EFFECTS: • FEDERAL SOVEREIGNTY (THIS WAS ACCEPTED AFTER WAR BUT CONSTITUTION WAS NOT AMENDED IN ANY WAR RELEVANT TO THIS!) • SLAVERY AND INVOLUNTARY SERVITUDE ABOLISHED (BUT NO EQUALITY OR LASTING CIVIL RIGHTS FOR AFRICAN-AMERICANS) • LEGAL: SUPREME COURT DECISIONS ESTABLISHED THAT EVEN DURING WARTIME PRESIDENT MUST FOLLOW THE CONSTITUTION

  21. GENDER RELATIONS: NURSING BECAME ACCEPTABLE PROFESSION FOR WOMEN • RECONSTRUCTION – MILITARY OCCUPATION OF SOUTH UNTIL 1877  LINGERING N/S HOSTILITY • MOST DEADLY WAR IN U.S. HISTORY AND IT WAS, OFTEN LITERALLY, BROTHER AGAINST BROTHER. WAS IT WORTH IT? YOU DECIDE . . . BUT COULD U.S. HAVE BECOME A SUPERPOWER OTHERWISE?

  22. CIVIL WAR – RELATIVE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE SIDES

  23. RELATIVE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES – NORTH AND SOUTH: SOUTH WOULD HAVE BEEN ONE OF THE WEALTHIEST NATIONS IN THE WORLD, AND HAD HOPES OF EXPANDING INTO CARIBBEAN AND CENTRAL AMERICA • BUT MILITARILY, SOUTH HAD MANY DISADVANTAGES, INCLUDING LACK OF RAILROADS, WHITE MEN, AND FOOD CROPS, AS THE FOLLOWING CHARTS SHOW • IT WASN’T A CAKEWALK FOR THE NORTH, THOUGH!

  24. NORTH V. SOUTH, 1861

  25. NORTH V. SOUTH, 1861

  26. NORTH V. SOUTH, RAILROAD LINES 1861 N.B. THAT SOUTHERN RAILROADS LACKED STANDARD GAUGE – COULD NOT CONNECT CRITICAL DISADVANTAGE – CIVIL WAR WAS FIRST “INDUSTRIAL” WAR – MASS MOVEMENTS OF TROOPS BY RAIL, ALSO MOVEMENT OF LARGE ARTILLERY, MATERIEL, ETC.

  27. RESOURCES, NORTH V. SOUTH, 1861 – 65 (WITH FEW FACTORIES, SOUTH COULD NOT MAKE MUNITIONS, UNIFORMS, ETC., HAD TO RELY ON IMPORTS )

  28. MEN PRESENT FOR DUTY, 1862 –1865

  29. SO WHY DID THE SOUTH THINK IT COULD WIN? • SOUTH ONLY HAD TO DEFEND ITS TERRITORY (THOUGH IT TRIED TO TAKE D.C. TO WIN WAR) BUT NORTH HAD TO CONQUER THE SOUTH • BETTER GENERALS? MAYBE! THE SOUTH HAD ROBERT E. LEE! • IT HOPED BRITAIN (AND FRANCE) WOULD ENTER THE WAR ON ITS SIDE – NOT A CRAZY IDEA! • * RECALL MOST SOUTHERN COTTON WENT TO BRITAIN • * RECALL BRITAIN HAD SUPPORTED REPUBLIC OF TEXAS – LIKED IDEA OF TARIFF-FREE COTTON-PRODUCING COUNTRY

  30. 1862 – SOUTH DESTROYED TONS OF COTTON TO INDUCE “COTTON FAMINE” IN BRITAIN (CLOSURE OF TEXTILE MILLS, UNEMPLOYMENT) TO COERCE BRITISH SUPPORT • NORTHERN RESPONSE = CHARITABLE CONTRIBUTIONS FOR UNEMPLOYED BRITISH WORKERS • BRITAIN UNWILLING TO GET INVOLVED UNLESS SOUTH WON MAJOR BATTLE INDICATING LIKELY VICTORY, FRANCE UNWILLING TO GET INVOLVED UNLESS BRITAIN DID • SOUTH NEVER WON THAT MAJOR BATTLE (NONETHELESS IT TOOK FOUR YEARS FOR UNION TO DEFEAT SOUTH) • BUT BRITAIN ALLOWED BRITISH SHIPYARDS TO SUPPLY SOUTH WITH “COMMERCE RAIDERS” AND “LAIRD RAMS” (BATTLESHIPS) AT FIRST

  31. UNION GENERALS-IN-CHIEF – LINCOLN KEPT FIRING THEM! 1 1ST 3RD 5TH Ambrose Burnside DIDN’T WANT THE JOB, DIDN’T WIN George Meade WON AT GETTYSBURG BUT NOT AGGRESSIVE ENOUGH FOR LINCOLN Winfield Scott TOO OLD 2ND 4TH 6TH Ulysses S. Grant George McClellan TWICE! FIRED, THEN REHIRED. DIDN’T GET ALONG WITH LINCOLN, NOT AGGRESSIVE ENOUGH FOR LINCOLN Joseph Hooker DIDN’T WANT THE JOB, DIDN’T WIN ULYSSES S. GRANT ALCOHOLIC BUT WON BIG IN WEST, WON WAR!

  32. CONFEDERATE GENERALS • ROBERT E. LEE, COMMANDING GENERAL FROM 1862 TO THE END • SON OF REVOLUTIONARY WAR GENERAL “LIGHT HORSE” HARRY LEE • WEST POINT GRADUATE, SECOND IN CLASS (GRANT WAS AT BOTTOM OF CLASS) • CAREER OFFICER IN U..S ARMY – MEXICAN WAR, DEFEATED JOHN BROWN’S MILITIA AT HARPER’S FERRY • LINCOLN’S FIRST CHOICE AS UNION GENERAL-IN-CHIEF -- BUT LEE FELT MORE LOYALTY TO VIRGINIA (THOUGH HE HAD OPPOSED SECESSION)

  33. GENERALS SERVING UNDER LEE THOMAS “STONEWALL” JACKSON, P.G.T. BEAUREGARD, GEORGE PICKETT, JAMES LONGSTREET, NATHAN BEDFORD FORREST, AND JEB STUART JACKSON, LEE’S FAVORITE, WAS KILLED BY FRIENDLY FIRE AT CHANCELLORSVILLE, 1863

  34. 1861 - 1862

  35. INITIAL STRATEGIES • NORTH: SCOTT’S ANACONDA PLAN – ATLANTIC BLOCKADE + TAKE CONTROL OF MISSISSIPPI – CUT SOUTH OFF FROM TRADE AND FORCE SURRENDER (PLAN WORKED, EXCEPT SOUTH WOULDN’T SURRENDER!)

  36. SOUTH: “OFFENSIVE DEFENSE” -- ENCIRCLE D.C. TO DIVERT UNION FORCES, FORCE UNION TO GIVE UP AND LEAVE SOUTH ALONE • MAP SHOWS INITIAL STRATEGIES • N.B. LINCOLN ORDERED THE BLOCKADE AND CALLED UP THE ARMY WITHOUT PRIOR CONGRESSIONAL AUTHORIZATION) BUT CONGRESS LATER APPROVED

  37. Notes 2 MAJOR BATTLES, 1861 - 1862 -- SUMMARY • Western Theater Eastern theater Summary: CSA Defeating USA because of General Lee (DEFEAT IN SENSE THAT NORTH WAS MAINLY ON DEFENSIVE) Summary: USA defeating CSA because of General Grant CAPITOLS OF BOTH U.S.A. (D.C.) AND C.S.A. (RICHMOND) WERE IN EAST SO VICTORY THERE WAS ESSENTIAL

  38. MAJOR BATTLES, EASTERN THEATER, 1861 -62: • FORT SUMTER, APRIL 12, 1861 – SOUTH CAROLINA MILITIA DROVE FEDERAL TROOPS OUT OF FT. SUMTER, CHARLESTON • AN EXAMPLE OF LINCOLN’S TACTICAL PROWESS: HE DID NOT WANT UNION TO FIRE THE FIRST SHOT, SO HE PROVOKED CONFEDERACY TO DO IT • FT. SUMTER WAS UNION. FORT IN CONFEDERATE TERRITORY • SOME OF LINCOLN’S ADVISORS RECOMMENDED THAT UNION SHOULD JUST ABANDON THE FORT • BUT LINCOLN DECIDED TO SEND SUPPLIES TO THE MEN IN THE FORT, KNOWING SOUTH CAROLINA WOULD ATTACK THE TROOPS BRINGING SUPPLIES

  39. SIGNIFICANCE: NOT REALLY A MAJOR BATTLE, BUT SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT LED TO SECESSION OF (“OLD SOUTH”) STATES (BUT NOT BORDER STATES) • WHY? LINCOLN CALLED ON ALL STATES TO PROVIDE TROOPS – OLD SOUTH STATESS NOT EAGER TO SECEDE, BUT UNWILLING TO SEND TROOPS TO FIGHT OTHER SOUTHERNERS

  40. FIRST BATTLE OF BULL RUN (MANASSAS), JULY 21, 1861 UNION TROOPS UNDER ATTACK MANASSAS (RR TERMINAL) – DEFEATED BY CONFEDERATE TROOPS • SIGNIFICANCE = FIRST REAL BATTLE, CONFEDERATE VICTORY – BUT STILL UNION HOPED TO AVOID WAR: CRITTENDEN-JOHNSON RESOLUTION PASSED DECEMBER 1861. APRIL 1862, PASSED LAW PROMISING TO COMPENSATE SLAVEOWNERS WHO FREED SLAVES

  41. DECEMBER, 1861 – AFTER BULL RUN, CONGRESS PASSED CRITTENDEN-JOHNSON RESOLUTION TO TRY TO REUNITE UNION: • UNION WAS NOT FIGHTING TO ABOLISH SLAVERY, ONLY TO PRESERVE UNION • IF SOUTH RETURNED TO UNION, SLAVERY WOULD REMAIN INTACT IN SOUTH • YOU HAVE LINCOLN’S 1862 LETTER TO GREELEY • EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION WILL NOT COME UNTIL AFTER ANTIETAM (SEPTEMBER 1862) • Slavery Forever Protected in States where it existed as of 1860 • 36030’ applied to all territory (even “hereafter acquired”) • North Must Return Fugitive Slaves • Federal Territorial Slave Code • Slavery Never to be Abolished In D.C. • No Federal Interference with the Interstate Slave Trade

  42. MCCLELLAN’S PENINSULA CAMPAIGN, MARCH 17 – JULY 1, 1862 • PLAN – AMPHIBIOUS LANDING ON YORKTOWN PENINSULA, CONQUER RICHMOND (CSA CAPITOL), QUICK END TO WAR

  43. BATTLE OF SEVEN PINES, MAY 31, 1862 – BOTH SIDES CLAIMED VICTORY – ROUGHLY EQUAL CASUALTIES (UNION 5031 = 790 killed, 3,594 wounded, 647 captured or missing; Confederate 6,134 = 980 killed, 4,749 wounded, 405 captured or missing) – BUT MCCLELLAN PULLED BACK • SEVEN DAYS’ BATTLE, JUNE 25 – JULY 1, 1862 – CONFEDERATE COUNTERATTACK (UNDER LEE) • SIGNIFICANCE • NOW CLEAR THAT THERE WOULD BE A REAL WAR – SOUTH WOULD FIGHT FOR INDEPENDENCE = “TOTAL WAR” NECESSARY • AND NOW SOUTH SEIZED INITIATIVE AND LAUNCHED “OFFENSIVE DEFENSE” – ATTACK ON NORTH

  44. MAP SHOWS PROGRESS OF LEE’S NORTHERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN UP TO SECOND BATTLE OF BULL RUN – NOTE CSA PROGRESS TOWARD D.C.!

  45. SECOND BATTLE OF BULL RUN, AUGUST 28 – 30, 1862 • CULMINATION OF LEE’S NORTHERN VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN - SUCCESSFUL CONFEDERATE ATTACK AGAINST UNION RAIL DEPOT AT MANASSAS – UNION FORCES UNDER GENERAL JOHN POPE FORCED TO RETREAT TO CENTERVILLE, VA. (SEE MAP PREDECING PAGE) • CONFEDERATE ARMY WITHIN 35 MILES OF D.C. BUT NOTE THAT SOUTH HAD SLIGHTLY HIGHER CASUALTY RATE – AND SOUTH COULD NOT AFFORD AS WELL AS NORTH (FEWER WHITE MEN IN SOUTH)