Teaching procedures: • Ⅰ Warm-up questions • Ⅱ Background • Ⅲ Word study • Ⅳ General understanding of the text • Ⅴ Detailed study of the text • Ⅵ Questions for discussion • Ⅶ Language focus • Ⅷ Exercises
Ⅰ Warming-up questions • 1. Could you imagine a life without the telephone? • 2. When did the telephone come to your life? • 3. How do you think the telephone relates to you and your life respectively?
ⅡBackground information 1. Location of Lebalon in the world map
ⅡBackground information • 2. The map of Lebanon
ⅡBackground information 2. Geography of LebanonAs a republic since 1943, it is a compact country of 10,452 square kilometers with a population of 3.57 millions (year 2000). The capital is Beirut. Lebanon falls on the Eastern Mediterranean sea, between 33° 34'.40 latitude north and 35° 36'.40° longitude east. The country is located at the meeting point of three continents, and over the centuries it has been the cross roads of many civilizations whose trace may still be seen today. In winter, the high peaks are covered with snow and in summer the limestone slopes glimmer white in the distance. Two rocky ranges traverse Lebanon parallel to the seacoast, separated by the high plateau of the Bekaa Valley. Its countryside is a place of rocks, cedar trees and magnificent ruins that look down from the mountains to the sea.
ⅡBackground information 3.ReligionChristianity and Islam are the main religions. Christian denominations, mainly Greek Orthodox, Maronite, Armenian and Protestant account for approximately 40 percent. Islam (predominantly Shi'ite) accounts for another 40 percent of the population's beliefs. Other religions account for the remaining 20 percent.
ⅡBackground information 4. About the author Anwar F. Accawi was born in Lebanon in a family whose ancestors are believed to have gone to Jerusalem in the Crusades. While he was teaching English at the university of Beirut, he married someone from Tennessee, the United States. When the civil war broke out in lebanon, they were forced to leave the country and settle down in the States. Anwar F. Accawi currently teaches at the English Language Institude of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville.
1. bustle 2. chime 3. congrgate 4. curse 5. desolate 6. escalate 7.forsake 8. lukewarm 9. lure 10. reassure 11. reveal 12. shun Ⅲ Word Study
1. bustle • Vi& vt (cause sb to) move busily and energetically (in the specified direction. • She was bustling about preparing the breakfast. • People were bustling in and out (of the building). • He bustled the maid off on an errand. • vi.be full of (noise, activity ect. )[with] ·到处是（嘈杂的声音、繁忙的景象 ） • The street was bustling with Christmas shoppers.街道上挤满了为欢度圣诞节购物的人群。 • n. be in a bustle <人> 忙乱; <街上等> 熙攘喧闹 • The hustle and butle of city life都市生活的拥挤和繁忙景象
2. chime • (of bells or a clock) show (the time) by ringing(指时钟）响声报时 • The church clock chimed at midnight. • chime in (with sth): (infml) interrupt a conversation插话 • He kept chimed in with his own opinions. • Chime (in) with sth(infml): fit sth; suit sth符合某事，适合某事 • It’s good that your plans chimed (in) with ours.你的计划和我们的吻合，真是好极了。
3. congrgate • v. to assemble; to get together • n. congregation • A crowd of enthusiastic fans congregated the famous singer. • A congregation of wild geese flied south. • congregational adj. • congregational singing 会众唱歌 • Congregational Church 公理会 • congregationalism （基督教）公理制
4. curse • v./ n to appeal to some supernatural power; • to bring evil or injury to sb. you hate Examples: • She cursed terribly. 她大肆咒骂。 • curse and swear 恶言辱骂 • call down curses upon sb. 祈求上天降祸于某人 • be under a curse受诅咒遭殃 • lay sb. under a curse 诅咒某人
5. desolate • desolate adj. / v. deserted; made unfit for habitation • This place is desolate of all vegetation.这个地方不长草木。 • She was desolate after her parents died. • The land was desolated by floods. • We were desolated to hear the news of her death. • desolate land 不毛之地 • a desolate old house废旧的房屋 • the desolate poor悲惨的穷人 • a desolate life 沉闷的生活 • desolate memories令人沮丧的回忆 • v. leave (a place) ruined or deserted • A city desolated by civil strife • 2. make (sb) sad and hopeless • a family desolated by the loss of a child因为失去孩子而悲痛欲绝的一家人
6. escalate • Examples: • escalate the arms race • escalating price/pressure • If we surrender on this small issue, they undoubtedly will escalate their demands. • escalator 自动扶梯
7.forsake • v.a. to quit or leave entirely • b. (fml)to give up or renounce (a habit, way of life, etc.) • Examples: • forsake the theater • forsake a bad habit • an old forsaken house • He was forsaken by his friends. • a dreary forsaken beach in winter
8. lukewarm 1. (of liquids)only slightly warm, tepid (指液体）不冷不热的，微温的 Heat the milk until it is just lukewarm. 2. lukewarm(about sb/sth) (fig) not eager or enthusiastic get a lukewarm reception受冷漠的接待 Her love had grown lukewarm.
9. lure • v. to attract, draw or recall • n. anything that attracts; power of attracting • Examples: • Money lured him on . • The desire for wealth lured them into questionable dealings. • The hunter lured the fox into a trap. • Large firms lure customers away with slick advertisement. • The beaches have become a lure for walking, especially in the early evening. the lure of adventure [Paris] • Cities have a lure for young people from the country.
10. reassure • reassure sb (about sth): remove sb’s fears or doubts消除某人的恐惧或疑虑 • The police reassured her about her child’s safety. • The doctor reassured the patient about his disease [condition] • A glance in the mirror reassured him that his tie was not crooked. • We went to the hospital to reassure ourselves about his condition.我们去医院查明他的病情以使我们安心。 • We were reassured (to hear) that the ship was safe and sound.我们听说该船安全无恙而感到安心。 • a reassuring glance,word, pat on the back
11. reveal • v.a. to make known; to disclose • b. to lay open to view; to expose/show/ display/exhibit • Examples: • Investigation has revealed him to be a criminal. • She drew the curtains aside to reveal a beautiful garden. • Their faces revealed anger and alarm. • a revealing dress • a revealing conversation/experience • We listened to him for two solid hours, but he had nothing very revealing to say.
12. shun • v. to keep away from; to take pains to avoid • Examples: • shun company [publicity, temptation]避开与人交往 [出名,诱惑] • He was shunned by his former friends. • He shunned meeting any of his friends.他避免与他的任何朋友碰面。
Ⅳ General Understanding of the text 1. The Theme of the Text • 1)The text describes, from a boy’s perspective, how the telephone affected people’s way of life in a Lebanese mountain village: It broke the seclusion of the village. • 2)The text raised us a question: what attitude we should adopt toward new things, whether we should welcome them or boycott them.
Ⅳ General Understanding of the text 2. The Structure of the Text Part 1 (Paras 1—10)A detailed description of the villages’ way of life before the telephone came. Background information is provided in the introduction. • Part 2(Paras 11-- 23) How the telephone was installed, what changes it brought about in the village.
Ⅴ. Detailed Study of the Text • Plot: The coming of telephone brought some changes into a small village, both personally and socially. • Setting: social setting: in the early 20th century before the process of modernization story setting: in the village in Lebanon • Protagonist: “I”—when the author was young
Part 1:Questions 1. What was the overall picture of the this village before the telephone arrived? What specific details did the narrator give to present this picture? 2. What do you make of the fact that the people in the village had no calendar and clock and had no need for them? What kind of society is it that does not need so much to keep track of the hours, days, months, and years? 3. What can we infer from the fact that the roof of the mayor’s house caved in nder the heavy snow? 4. How did the people there keep track of the important events in their lives? 5. What interesting things happened the year of the drought which the narrator remembered so vividly as a boy? 6. What impression did you get about the life in the small village according to the text?
Para. 1 1. … time didn’t mean much to anybody, except maybe to those who were dying. • The villagers didn’t think time was important until perhaps when they were dying.
Para. 1 2. Inthose days, there was no real need for a calendar or a watch to keep track of the hours, days, months, and years. • keep track of: to keep oneself informed about a person, situation, etc. • cf. lose track of: to fail to remain informed • Examples: • They try hard to keep track of their favorite stars. • He loses track of time whenever he surfs the Net.
Para. 1 • 3. The only timepiece we had need of then was sun. • need: a strong feeling that you want sb/sth or must have sth, e.g. • There was a time in the country when you’d be considered a jerk if you passed by somebody in need. • To have no need of: to not need, e.g. • When he found they had no more need of him, he quit. • Need: a situation when sth is necessary or must be done, e.g. • There ’s no need to apologize. • The sun was the only clock or watch we needed at that time.
Para. 1 • 4. the seasons rolled by • The seasons came and went in steady succession. • to roll by : (of time) to pass, especially quickly, e.g. • The years rolled by, and still they got no news of their son.
Para. 1 • 5. married our cousins • Cultural note: Intermarriage among cousins is very common in Arab countries. The Practice has come down from ancient times, when the Arabs were mostly normadic herdsmen who had no permanent steelements and moved with the animals from place to place. There were very few options open to young people in the choice of spouse. Today, this intermarriage is still common because the trouble of exchanging dowries.When rich people marry their cousins, they don’t worry that someday their money and property will pass to another family/change hands.
Para. 2 • But ours was a natural or, rather, a divine-calendar, because it was framed by acts of God: earthquakes and droughts and floods and locusts and pestilences. … We used natural disasters to keep track of time and of the important events in our lives. This was a natural calendar though it is more accurate to say a divine calendar, for sunrise and sunset, the change of seasons, and earthquakes and droughts and floods and locusts and pestilences were all works of God.
Para. 4 7. … that caused the roof on the mayor’s house to cave in: that caused the mayor’s house roof to collapse • cave in:(of roof or wall) to fall down or inward; to collapse
Para. 8 • 8. And that’s the way it was in our little village for as far back as anybody could remember. • And that’s how we kept track of the important events in our little village to the extent that/for as long as the oldest people could remember. • Note: Here, “as far back as anybody could remember” serves as the object of “for”, the villagers trust one another, they never doubt it.
Para. 8 • 9. …because men who would not lie even to save their own souls told and retold that story … • This shows, to some extent, the way of thinking of the villagers in those days when honesty prevailed. They trusted honest people and didn’t seek any proof for what had been said about the past events. • to save their own souls: to save their lives(Maybe a religious meaning, i.e. lying is a sin, and sinning will make it difficult to get into Heaven when one dies. These Lebanese are Christians.
Para. 8 • 10. until it was incorporated into Magdaluna’s calendar. • until the event became one of the things by which we kept track of the important events in our lives. • incorporate sth (into) : to add or include sth as part of sth else, e.g. • The company decided to incorporate the new feature into their microcomputer. • A number of courses in public relations have been incorporated into our carriculum.
Para. 9 11. There was, for instance, the year of the drought, when the heavens were shut for months and the spring from which the entire village got its drinking water slowed to a trickle. • The heavens were shut for months: it didn’t rain for months as if the sky were shut tight. • slowed to a trickle: gradually there was only a small amount of water coming slowly out of the spring • to: used for stating what condition or state sb or sth is after a change, e.g. • The ancient temple has been restored to its former glory. • The disease has reduced the patient to a bag of bones.
Para. 9 12. their napping men and wet babies • their husbands who were taking a nap and their babies who were breast fed • Cultural Note: Men in Arab countries, especially in the countryside, usually don’t do any housework. As we read on, we find the men in the village spent the evening somewhere drinking, chatting, playing games with each other.
Para. 10 13. And sometimes the arguments escalated into full-blown, knockdown-dragout fights; and sometimes the arguments became so fierce that the women began to gight violently. full-blown: in the most complete and developed form, e.g. a full-blown economic crisis knockdown-dragout: adj. (Ame) very violent or uncontrolled
Para. 10 14. call each other names that made my ears tingle • the words they used when they were quarreling were so offensive that we little boys felt uncomfortable • to call sb names: to abuse them by insulting words • call each other names • call sb. by name • in name • in one’s own name • in the name of… • make one’s name • to one’s name • under the name of… • use sb.’s name • 谩骂某人 • 名叫，直呼其名 • 在名义上 • 用自己的名义，擅自 • 在······名下，代表······； • 使某人成名、出名 • 在自己名下，属自己所有 • 用······ 的名字，以······的名义 • 援引某人的话
Para. 10 • We little brown boys who went with our mothers to fetch water loved these fights Why? • Cultural Note: The traditional robe Arab women wear outdoors is a three-piece garment: a long-sleeved black dress reaching to the heels, a large black shawl to hide the hair and to wear over the shoulders and a black, nontransparent veil to cover the face showing only the eyes. In a few Arab countries such as Saudi Arabia and Yemen, women must wear such a garment when they go out.
Para. 10 • I remember the rush, the excitement, the sun dancing on the dust clouds as a dress ripped and a young white breast was revealed, then quickly hidden. • Some women were fighting furiously creating dustclouds. The sun was moving quickly on the dust when a young woman’s dress was torn open and her breast exposed. We little boys would rush to steal a glance before it was hidden again. I still remember the excitement I felt at such moments.
Part 2 Questions • 1. Why did the narrator say that it was one of the worst years for him? What happened? • 2. Why does the author introduce the subject of the telephone so late in the article? • 3. Why did the narrator think the telephone installment was a big event? • 4. Where had the village center been in the past? • 5. What changes happened to the narrator as a boy? Why? • 6. What other changes took place in the village? • 7. What was the narrator’s feeling toward the changes?
Para. 11 17.… Magdaluna was not going to get anywhere until it had one. … Magdaluna wouldn’t achieve any success without a telephone. to get anywhere/somewhere/nowhere: to make some/no progress or have some/no success • Have you got anywhere in your project? • You’ll surely get somewhere if you persist in it. • Losing your temper won’t get you anywhere with them.
Para. 11 18. But they were outshouted and ignored and finally shunned by the other villagers… • outshouted: those for the telephone were louder (or stronger) than the others in their arguments But the majority of the villagers were for the telephone, and they wouldn’t listen to those few people who were finally deliberately avoided for resisting progress.
Para. 19 19. And the telephone, as it turned out, was bad news. Why? • When the telephone first came to the village, the boy was curious about it and marveled at the wonderful machine through which people could talk to relatives far away. But later it proved to be a misfortune for the village and for the boy personally. (This is what the boy thought at that time.)
Para. 21 20. … the signal that they were ready to toss back and forth, like a ball, the latest rumors going around the village. … this showed that now they were ready to exchange the latest news.
Para. 22 21. The telephone was also bad news for me personally. It took away my lucrative business—a source of much-needed income. For the boy the coming of the telephone deprived him of the opportunity to earn some money.
Para. 22 • On a good day, I ran nine or ten of those errands, which assured a steady supply of marbles that I usually lost to other boys. • assure: to make sth. certain to happen • Example: • Strength and good tactics assured • his success at the Asian Games. When I was lucky, I got nine or ten errands to run a day. With the money I earned I could buy new marbles so that I always had an adequate number to play with, although I usually lost them to other boys.
Para. 24 • 23. Magdaluna became a skeleton of its former self, desolate and forsaken, like the tombs, a place to get away from. • With the healthy, the young, and the able-bodied all gone, Magdaluna was not what it had been. The house, the streets and the store were there, but they were no longer alive with laughter and the loud voices of the men talking, laughing, and arguing. It became a much-deserted place, a place to escape from, like a graveyard or cemetery.
Ⅵ Questions for discussion • 1. Should we always embrace the new because what is new always means progress,and what is progress is good? • 2. Why is it that people are often so nostalgic? Do you think it is a good thing for people tp remenber the past with fondness?