Biomechanics Biomechanics Definition
Biomechanics • It is the application of mechanics to the living human body. • It is the study of human movement • It is the science concerned with the internal and external forces acting on the human body and the effects produced by these forces.
Kinesiology • It is the organization of information dealing with motion or it is the study of movement. • Kinesis = Movement. • Ology. = Science.
Purpose of studying biomechanics • To learn how to analyze the movement of the human body and to discover the underlying principles. • To improve human performance. • To prevent occurrence of injury during performance. • To evaluate posture exercises based on individual needs and the efficient methods of using the body in daily living
Biomechanics includes: • Anatomical: which describes the structure of the body ,its parts and their potential for movement. • Physiological: which studies the processes involved in the initiation, continuation and control of movement. • Psychological: which examines the sensations, perception and motivations that stimulate movement and neurological mechanisms which control them. • Mechanical: which considers the force, time and distance relationships involved in body movement. • Socio-cultural: which considers the meaning given to various movements in different human settings.
According to location: • Axial skeleton: It includes the skull, the vertebral column, the ribs and the sternum (Cortical bones) • Appendicular skeleton: It includes the upper limbs, lower limbs, pectoral and pelvic bones which connects the appendicular skeleton with the axial skeleton
According to shape: • Long bone: has two ends and shaft. e.g. bone of the arm, the metacarpal bones, metatarsal bones and phalanges. • Short bone: the length and widths are equal e.g. carpal bones, tarsus bones, patella. • Flat bone: broad and smooth surfaces. e.g. cap of the skull, scapula, ribs and sternum. • Irregular bone: has a variety of shapes. e.g. vertebrae, base of the skull and ear bones • Pneumatic bone: contains spaces filled with air. e.g. skull bones
According to dynamic structure: • Compact bone: Skull bones and vertebrae an pelvic bones, sternum, ribs, patella, carpal bones and tarsal bones. • Spongy bone: Long bones
According to development: • Membrane: Compact bone. • Cartilage: Spongy bone.
Mechanical axis of the bone • It is a straight line which connect the mid point of the joint at one end with the midpoint of the joint at the other end. • In case of a terminal segment, with the midpoint of its distal end.