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## Optics News: Kepler Mission successfully launched Saturday!

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**Optics News: Kepler Mission successfully launched Saturday!**• Solar orbit • Watching 105 stars for planetary transits. • Expects to find 50 Earth like planets in a few years. • 95Megapixel CCD • Why cant we directly image distant planets? • Find out this week!**Planet Mercury passing in front of the sun.**• Brief dimming of the sun by about 1 part in 105**Week 3**• Interference and Diffraction of Light • Young’s Double Slit Experiment • Thin Film Interference • Michelson Interferometer • Single Slit Diffraction • Rayleigh’s Criterion • Diffraction Gratings**Assignment 2**• Chap 33 # 14, 22, 27, 34,50, 59 • Chap 34 #6, 88, 92**My Error?**How is the energy distributed for waves in a string? Standing waves: I was right: energy alternates between kinetic and potential energy. Travelling wave: text book argues that max KE coincides with Max PE because position of max velocity coincides with position of max stretching. Figure 16-12 Localisation of energy is often difficult in physics**From week 1**Interference of Waves • Waves sum to • a maximum (constructive) • or minimum (destructive) • Use • Combined wave is • New phase, new amplitude (zero for **Phasor Method for Interference**(2/3) radians behind From week 1, phasor: a vector, length equals wave amplitude, direction: relative phase angle (compared with some standard wave) For multiple waves, resultant is vector sum of their phasors This case: Vector sum of the two phasors Near destructive interference: =0.95**Fig. 35-15**Interference from Thin Films • Light reflects off both faces of film. • Light reflecting at b has to travel a bit further. • There is a phase difference: outgoing waves may experience constructive or destructive interference.**DEMO bubbles**Interference Thought Experiment • Light is quantised: photons : energy E=hf. • Since c=f E =hc/. h= Planck’s constant = 6 x 10-34 • Green LED light (=500nm) power 1mW. Just visible from 1km distance. • Energy per photon = 6 x 10-34 x 3 x 108/500 x 10-9 = 3.6 x 10-19 J • Photons per second from LED = power/energy per photon = 10-3/3.6 x 10-19 ~ 3 x 1015 per second • Photons per second entering your eye = number per second emitted x area of pupil/area of 1km sphere ~ 1000 photons/second. Or 1 photon/millisecond. • But photons travel 300km in 1 millisecond. • So in 1km path no photons at all most of the time. • Similarly in a 10-6 meter thckness soap bubble film photons only present a tiny fraction of the time.**How can there be interference when only 1 photon is present**at a time? • Seems like interference of waves • Not interference of photons • Interference of possibilities • We will continue to treat light as waves but remember that the reality is the strange and absurd concept of the interference of something intangible: we call it a wavefunction but we don’t know what it is.**Reflection Phase Shifts**n1 > n2 n1< n2 n1 n1 n2 n2 Fig. 35-16 Fig. 35-15 Important to understand phase change at reflection Reflection Reflection Phase Shift Off lower index 0 Off higher index 0.5 wavelength Rope: high refractive index, low velocity Wall or thin string: low refractive index, high velocity No phase change on reflection (35-15)**Film Thickness Much Less Than l**r2 r1 If L is much less than l, for example L < 0.1l, then phase difference due to the path difference 2L can be neglected. Phase difference between r1 and r2will always be ½ wavelength destructive interference film will appear dark when viewed from illuminated side. ie: zero reflection as film thickness goes to zero Note choice of reference phase is arbitrary Length of resultant phasor is independent of choice of reference phasor direction (35-17)**Frequency, Wavelength in different media**Frequency of waves remains constant (except from Doppler effect) Refractive index n = c/v When waves travel slow wavelength must reduce. Hence phase changes c/v times greater for a given distance.**Equations for Thin-Film Interference**Fig. 35-17 • Three effects can contribute to the phase difference between r1 and r2. • Differences in reflection conditions. • Difference in path length traveled. • Differences in the media in which the waves travel. One must use the wavelength in each medium (l / n) to calculate the phase. ½ wavelength phase difference to difference in reflection of r1 and r2 (35-16)**Last week**Why Does Light Refract • Life Saver on the Beach • Which trajectory? Lifesaver sand Sea drowning**Law of Refraction**Index of Refraction: Law of Refraction: Fig. 35-3 (35-3)**Why does angle of incidence equal angle of reflection?**• Consider trajectories where angle of incidence was not equal to angle of reflection. • Now remember phasors • Consider the sum of all trajctories • At edges phase angle increases steadily: phasors create circles that add to zero • Near centre phase shifts approach zero:phasors add to give a finite resultant 1 n… m… N ∞ Path length Trajectory number**Paint Black Stripes on the Mirror**• Consider the same sum of all trajectories. • Now black out mirror for bits that make up phase shift of the phasors • Now the phasor circles are only half circles. • At edges where the phase angle increases steadily we have cut out the phasors components for half the circles so there is now a large resultant. • Now trajectories for which angle of incidence is not equal to angle of reflection are allowed. • This is a diffraction grating. 1 n… m… N ∞ Path length Trajectory number 1 n… m… N… ∞ trajectory number**Wavelength and Index of Refraction**Fig. 35-4 The frequency of light in a medium is the same as it is in vacuum. Since wavelengths in n1 and n2 are different, the two beams may no longer be in phase. (35-4)**Diffraction and the Wave Theory of Light**Diffraction pattern from a single narrow slit. Side or secondary maxima Light Central maximum These patterns cannot be explained using geometrical optics (Ch. 34)! Fresnel Bright Spot. Light Bright spot (36-2)**Diffraction**DEMO ripple tank Fig. 35-7 For plane waves entering a single slit, the waves emerging from the slit start spreading out, diffracting. (35-6)**Young’s Double Slit Experiment**Fig. 35-8 (35-7)**Calculating Fringes**Path Length Difference: Fig. 35-10 The phase difference between two waves can change if the waves travel paths of different lengths. What appears at each point on the screen is determined by the path length difference DL of the rays reaching that point. (35-8)**Fig. 36-4**Diffraction by a Single Slit: Locating the Minima When the path length difference between rays r1 and r2 is l/2, the two rays will be out of phase when they reach P1 on the screen, resulting in destructive interference at P1. The path length difference is the distance from the starting point of r2 at the center of the slit to point b. For D>>a, the path length difference between rays r1 and r2 is (a/2) sin q. (36-3)**Diffraction by a Single Slit: Locating the Minima, cont'd**(minima-dark fringes) Fig. 36-5 Repeat previous analysis for pairs of rays, each separated by a vertical distance of a/2 at the slit. Setting path length difference to l/2 for each pair of rays, we obtain the first dark fringes at: (first minimum) For second minimum, divide slit into 4 zones of equal widths a/4 (separation between pairs of rays). Destructive interference occurs when the path length difference for each pair is l/2. (second minimum) Dividing the slit into increasingly larger even numbers of zones, we can find higher order minima: (36-4)**Intensity in Single-Slit Diffraction, Qualitatively**To obtain the locations of the minima, the slit was equally divided into N zones, each with width Dx. Each zone acts as a source of Huygens wavelets. Now these zones can be superimposed at the screen to obtain the intensity as a function of q, the angle to the central axis. To find the net electric field Eq (intensity aEq2) at point P on the screen, we need the phase relationships among the wavelets arriving from different zones: N=18 1st side max. 1st min. q = 0 q small Fig. 36-6 (36-5)**Fig. 36-7**Intensity in Single-Slit Diffraction, Quantitatively Here we will show that the intensity at the screen due to a single slit is: In Eq. 36-5, minima occur when: If we put this into Eq. 36-6 we find: (36-6)**Proof of Eqs. 36-5 and 36-6**Fig. 36-8 If we divide the slit into infinitesimally wide zones Dx, the arc of the phasors approaches the arc of a circle. The length of the arc is Em. f is the difference in phase between the infinitesimal vectors at the left and right ends of the arc. fis also the angle between the 2 radii marked R. The dashed line bisecting f forms two triangles, where: In radian measure: Solving the previous 2 equations for Eq one obtains: The intensity at the screen is therefore: f is related to the path length difference across the entire slit: (36-7)**Diffraction by a Circular Aperture**a a Light Light q q Distant point source, e,g., star d Image is not a point, as expected from geometrical optics! Diffraction is responsible for this image pattern. q lens (36-8)**Rayleigh’s Criterion**Fig. 36-10 Rayleigh’s Criterion: Two point sources are barely resolvable if their angular separation qR results in the central maximum of the diffraction pattern of one source’s image centered on the first minimum of the diffraction pattern of the other source’s image. (36-9)**Southern Cross and Pointers**• Brightest is nearest star -Cen • Increase aperture d and it resolves into a binary