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  1. BR_MAIN1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 1. Martin Luther King, Jr. 2. Civil Rights Movement 3. Emancipation Proclamation 4. English Song — My Country, ’Tis of Thee

  2. BR_MAIN2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 1. A Brief Introduction 2. Chronology of Martin Luther King 3. A Video Clip About Martin Luther King

  3. BR_MAIN3 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 1. A Brief Introduction 2. Some Famous Figures and Events 3. A Civil Rights Song — We Shall Not Be Moved

  4. Before Reading_1.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading A Brief Introduction Martin Luther King, Jr. was the leading figure of the black civil rights movement that swept the U.S. in the 1950s and 1960s. His reform movement, based on nonviolent disobedience, resulted in the segregation laws of the South being declared unconstitutional, and laws being passed to ensure equal voting rights for blacks. King began his career as a Baptist minister in Montgomery, Alabama. It was there, in 1956, that a woman named Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to vacate a “whites only” seat on a city bus. Together with Ralph Abernathy, King organized a successful boycott of the city buses, and won national acclaim. In 1963, on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., he delivered his famous speech “I Have a Dream” to an audience of more than 250,000. King was awarded the Nobel peace prize in 1964, yet his final years saw the rise of a militant black movement under the leadership of activists such as Malcolm X. In 1968, Martin Luther King was assassinated while visiting Memphis, Tennessee.

  5. Before Reading_1.2.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Chronology of Martin Luther King Time Event January 15, 1929 Born in Atlanta, Georgia, son of a Baptist minister. 1947 Ordained into the Baptist church. 1954 Appointed to the ministry at Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama. February 24, 1956 Leads a 381-day boycott of Montgomery city buses. January, 1957 Founds the S.C.L.C. (Southern Christian Leadership Conference) — a national vehicle for civil rights reform. August 28, 1963 Delivers the speech “I Have a Dream” in Washington, D.C.

  6. Before Reading_1.2.2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Time Event December 10, 1964 Awarded Nobel peace prize. February 10, 1965 Organizes demonstrations in Selma, Alabama, to assert the rights of blacks in the region to vote. April 4, 1968 Shot dead by a white assassin, James Earl Ray, in Memphis, Tennessee.

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  11. Before Reading_1.3.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading A Video Clip About Martin Luther King The Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. was the main leader of the civil rights movement in the United States during the 1950s and 1960s. King devoted his life to the elimination of racial segregation and the promotion of political and economic equality for all Americans. King’s commitment to nonviolent protests and his stirring speeches earned him and his causes the support of millions of people. In 1963, King led the March on Washington. People came from all over the country. More than 200,000 people heard King’s dramatic plea for racial equality at the Lincoln Memorial. His speech that day was the high point of the demonstration and defined the moral basis of the civil rights movement. ■

  12. Before Reading_1.4.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading A Brief Introduction The civil rights movement was a movement for racial equality in the U.S. that, through nonviolent protests, broke the pattern of racial segregation in the South and achieved equal rights legislation for blacks. Following the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954), African American and white supporters attempted to end entrenched segregationist practices. When Rosa Parks was arrested in 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama, an African American boycott of the bus system was led by Martin Luther King, Jr. and Ralph Abernathy. In the early 1960s the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee led boycotts and sit-ins to desegregate many public facilities. Using the nonviolent methods of Mohandas K. Gandhi, the movement spread, forcing the desegregation of department stores, supermarkets, libraries, and movie theatres. The Deep South remained adamant in its opposition to most desegregation measures, often violently; protesters were attacked and occasionally killed. Their efforts culminated (达到高潮) in a march on Washington, D.C., in 1963 to support civil rights legislation.

  13. Before Reading_1.4.2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Following the assassination of John F. Kennedy, President Lyndon B. Johnson persuaded Congress to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964, a victory that was followed by the Voting Rights Act in 1965. After 1965, militant groups such as the Black Panther Party split off from the civil rights movement, and riots in black ghettos and King’s assassination caused many supporters to withdraw. In the succeeding decades, leaders sought power through elective office and substantive economic and educational gains through affirmative action.

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  17. Born: Birthplace: Died: Best Known as: Name at Birth: 4 February, 1913 Tuskegee, Alabama 24 October, 2005 The black woman arrested in 1955 for not giving up her bus seat Rosa Louise McCauley ● ● ● ● ● Before Reading_1.5.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Some Famous Figures and Events Rosa Parks: (1913~2005)

  18. Before Reading_1.5.2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Rosa Parks, a U.S. civil rights activist, worked as a tailor’s assistant in Montgomery, Alabama, where she joined the NAACP in 1943. In 1955 she was arrested after refusing to give her seat on a public bus to a white man. The resultant boycott (抵制) of the city’s bus system, organized by Martin Luther King, Jr. and others, brought the civil rights movement to new prominence. In 1957 Parks moved to Detroit, where she was a staff assistant (1965~1988) to U.S. Representative John Conyers. She was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal in 1999.

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  21. Before Reading_1.6 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Freedom Rides Organized by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), the 1961 freedom rides challenged the racial segregation of buses in the South. Black and white riders traveled from Washington, D.C. to Atlanta, Alabama, and Mississippi. In September 1961, after a petition from Robert Kennedy, the Interstate Commerce Commission enacted regulations that enabled the federal government to enforce the Supreme Court ruling (Boynton v. Virginia) that desegregated interstate travel.

  22. Before Reading_1.7 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading March on Washington In the early 1960s as black unemployment rates were rising and as civil rights demonstrators around the country encountered police brutality, the idea for the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom emerged. The march would turn out to be more successful than anticipated. It was at the march that Martin Luther King made his famous “I Have a Dream” speech and just one year later, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed.

  23. Before Reading_1.8.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading A Civil Rights Song — We Shall Not Be Moved We shall not, we shall not be moved We shall not, we shall not be moved Just like a tree that stands by the water We shall not be moved We’ll build a mighty union, we shall not be moved We’ll build a mighty union, we shall not be moved Just like a tree that stands by the water We shall not be moved We shall not, we shall not be moved We shall not, we shall not be moved Just like a tree that stands by the water We shall not be moved

  24. Before Reading_1.8.2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading We’re fighting for our children, we shall not be moved We’re fighting for our children, we shall not be moved Just like a tree that stands by the water We shall not be moved We shall not, we shall not be moved We shall not, we shall not be moved Just like a tree that stands by the water We shall not be moved

  25. Before Reading_1.9 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Emancipation Proclamation Emancipation Proclamation was a historic document that led to the end of slavery in the United States. President Abraham Lincoln issued the proclamation on Jan. 1, 1863, during the American Civil War. It declared freedom for slaves in all areas of the Confederacy that were still in rebellion against the Union. The proclamation also provided for the use of blacks in the Union Army and Navy. As a result, it greatly influenced the North’s victory in the war.

  26. Before Reading_1.10.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading English Song — My Country, ’Tis of Thee My Country, ’Tis of Thee, also known as America, is an American patriotic song. The melody is derived from the British national anthem, God Save the Queen. The lyrics to My Country, ’Tis of Thee were written in 1831 by Reverend Samuel Francis Smith of Boston’s Park Street Church while at the Andover Theological Seminary in Andover, Massachusetts. The song served as a de facto (事实上的) national anthem for much of the 19th century.

  27. Before Reading_1.10.2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading My country, ’tis of thee, Sweet land of liberty, Of thee I sing; Land where my fathers died, Land of the pilgrims’ pride, From every mountainside Let freedom ring! Let music swell the breeze, And ring from all the trees Sweet freedom’s song; Let mortal tongues awake; Let all that breathe partake; Let rocks their silence break, The sound prolong. Our father’s God to thee, Author of liberty, To thee we sing. Long may our land be bright, With freedom’s holy light, Protect us by thy might, Great God our King. From every mountainside Let freedom ring!

  28. Globe Reading_main Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 1. Part Division of the Text 2. Further Understanding For Part 1 Questions and Answers For Part 2 Interview For Part 3 Scanning

  29. Globe Reading_1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Part Division of the Text Parts Paragraphs Main Ideas 1 1-2 The tragic fact was that the Negro were still not free. 2 3-7 The reason why so many people had the March on Washington. 3 8-25 In spite of the terrible situation, King asked the Negro to have a dream for freedom.

  30. Global Reading_2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Questions and Answers 1. Who is the “great American” that signed the Emancipation Proclamation? And when? Abraham Lincoln, American president. In 1863. 2. What did the author think of the Emancipation Proclamation? He regarded it as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves and a joyous daybreak to end the long night of captivity. 3. What was the Negro’s situation 100 years after the issue of the Emancipation Proclamation? They still didn’t have freedom; they had to face segregation and discrimination and their life was still poor.

  31. Globe Reading_3 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Interview Directions: Suppose you are a reporter from CCTV and your partner is a professor whose research field is American history. Now you have an interview with him / her. Your interview should cover the following aspects: 1. Greeting 2. The reason why so many people came to the rally (集会) 3. The determination King showed to carry on the struggle 4. The strategy of the struggle 5. The five aspects of injustice the Negro were facing and the goal of the struggle

  32. Globe Reading_4.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Scanning Directions: In this part, King uses several sentences beginning with “I have a dream”. Now you are required to scan each of these sentences and summarize it with one word or a phrase from the sentence or written by yourself. For example: I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal.” After reading this sentence, we know the essence of the sentence is the last word “equal”. Therefore, we can use the word “equality” to summarize. Now, here are the sentences.

  33. Globe Reading_4.2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 1. I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slaveowners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood. brotherhood 2. I have a dream that even the state of Mississippi, a desert state sweltering with the heat of injustice and oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. freedom and justice 3. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. racial discrimination

  34. Globe Reading_4.3 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 4. I have a dream that the state of Alabama will be transformed into a situation where little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls and walk together as sisters and brothers. brotherhood 5. I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough place will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together. equality

  35. Article Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading In 1863 President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation freeing all slaves in the United States. One hundred years after this decree was signed, however, the life of blacks was still “sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination.” On August 28, 1963, a quarter of a million people of all races came to Washington, D.C., to show their support for freedom and justice for all Americans, and for black people in particular. At that demonstration Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered this famous speech, widely regarded as the most eloquent statement of the black people’s dreams and aspirations ever made. Dr. King told the world, “I have a dream” that equality would come “to all of God’s children.” He said he wanted everyone to be able to “join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, ‘Free at last! Free at last! ...’”

  36. Article1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading I Have a Dream Martin Luther King, Jr. Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentousdecree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice.It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night ofcaptivity.

  37. Article2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading But one hundred years later, we must face the tragic fact that the Negro is still not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro is still languishing in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land. So we have come here today to dramatize an appalling condition. In a sense we have come to our nation’s capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men would be guaranteed the inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

  38. Article3 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check; a check which has come back marked “insufficient funds.” But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation. So we have come to cash this check — a check that will give us upon demand the riches of freedom and the security of justice. We have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of now. This is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism. Now is the time to make real the promises of Democracy. Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice. Now is the time to open the doors of opportunity to all of God’s children. Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood.

  39. Article4 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment and to underestimate the determination of the Negro. This sweltering summer of the Negro’s legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality.1963 is not an end, but a beginning. There will be neither rest nor tranquility in America until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights. The whirlwind of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges. But there is something I must say to my people who stand on the warm threshold which leads into the palace of justice. In the process of gaining our rightful place we must not be guilty of wrongful deeds. Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred. We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline. We must not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence.

  40. Article5 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Again and again we must rise to the majestic heights of meeting physical force with soul force. The marvelous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to a distrust of all white people, for many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny and their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom. We cannot walk alone. And as we walk, we must make the pledge that we shall always march ahead. We cannot turn back. There are those who are asking the devotees of civil rights, “When will you be satisfied?” We can never be satisfied as long as the Negro is the victim of the unspeakable horrors of police brutality. We can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of the cities.

  41. Article6 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading We can never be satisfied as long as our children are stripped of their selfhood and robbed of their dignity by signs stating “For Whites Only.” We cannot be satisfied as long as the Negro’s basic mobility is from a smaller ghetto to a larger one. We can never be satisfied as long as a Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote. No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream. I say to you today, my friends, that in spite of the difficulties and frustrations of the moment I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal.” I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slaveowners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.

  42. Article7 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading I have a dream that even the state of Mississippi, a desert state sweltering with the heat of injustice and oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. I have a dream today. I have a dream that the state of Alabama will be transformed into a situation where little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls and walk together as sisters and brothers. I have a dream today. I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough place will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together.

  43. Article8 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading This is our hope. This is the faith with which I return to the South. With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day. This will be the day when all of God’s children will be able to sing with new meaning: My country, ’tis of thee Sweet land of liberty Of thee I sing: Land where my fathers died, Land of the pilgrims’ pride, From every mountainside Let freedom ring.

  44. Article9 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading And if America is to be a great nation this must become true. So let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire! Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania! Let freedom ring from the snowcapped Rockies of Colorado! Let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California! But not only that; let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia! Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee. Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi. From every mountainside, let freedom ring. When we let freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God’s children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, “Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!”

  45. Article _S_ This… Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of captivity. 1. What can we infer from the words “beacon light” and “daybreak”? We can infer that the Negro were in great form when they learned the contents of the Emancipation Proclamation. 2. What rhetorical device does the author adopt when he uses the words “beacon light” and “daybreak”? Here the author uses the rhetorical device called “simile”, which is used to describe sth. by comparing it with sth. else, with the words “as” or “like”. More examples: He eats like a pig! 他吃东西像头猪! I saw an old woman with hair as white as snow. 我看到一位白发苍苍的老妇人。

  46. Article _S_ the… Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading … the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. Translate this part into Chinese. 黑人的生活仍然悲惨地套着种族隔离和种族歧视的枷锁。

  47. Article_S_in… Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading In a sense we have come to our nation’s capital to cash a check. What does the phrase “cash a check” really mean? It means “get justice back” or “get the freedom and equality as Emancipation Proclamation claimed back”.

  48. Article _S_ they… Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading … they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. Paraphrase this part of the sentence. They wrote their signatures on the note and promised that every American could inherit it.

  49. Article _S_ but… Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. What is the implied meaning of the sentence? The implied meaning is “We don’t believe there is no justice in America”.

  50. Article _S_ we… Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading We have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of now. What are the different meanings of the two of’s in the sentence? The first “of” has something to do with the word “remind”. “Remind sb. of sth.” is a set phrase, meaning “提醒某人某事”, while the second “of” just means “……的”.