Opener – 4 minutes • Read “Missouri Compromise” on pages 304-305. • In your notebook, explain how this idea is showing how the North and South are having disagreements over the expansion of slavery.
Objectives: • Describe how the following increased tensions between the North and the South: • Wilmot Proviso – 1846 • Compromise 1850 & Fugitive Slave Act - 1850
Missouri Compromise • What are the three parts of the Missouri Compromise? • Which state comes in as a FREE state? • Which state comes in as a SLAVE state? • What is significant about the 36
Wilmot Proviso • Missouri Compromise of 1820 did not address territory acquired from Mexico. • Northerners fear slavery will spread to new territory – South will gain political power. • David Wilmot (PA) proposed Congress ban slavery in territory gained from Mexican War. • Proviso passes in the House but fails in the Senate • Southerners view it as an attack on slavery by the North.
Wilmot Proviso Consequences • Leads to creation of the “Free-Soil” Party. • Lewis Cass proposes to let people in the territories decide on slavery • Anti-slavery Whigs and Democrats want stronger stance on slavery. • Free-soil candidate Martin Van Buren does poorly, but gets enough votes to keep Cass from winning election of 1848
Chew on this!?! – 3 minutes • Read the handout of the Wilmot Proviso and answer the following questions in your notebook: • What was the purpose of the Wilmot Proviso? • Why did Southerners dislike the proviso?
2 minutes • You have two (2) minutes to discuss your responses to the previous questions with a minimum of three (3) people. • Remember – you are sharing AND collecting information!
Talk it out! • What was the purpose of the Wilmot Proviso? • How did Southerners view the proviso? • How did the proviso help to create the “Free-soil” Party? • Why was it called the “Free-soil” party?
Notes • Wilmot Proviso – 1847 • Created to stop spread of slavery in any land acquired from Mexico • North afraid South will gain too much power. • South sees Proviso as attack on slavery • “Free-Soil” party forms to contain slavery
Objective Recheck: • Describe how the Wilmot Proviso increased tensions between the North and the South. • Territory, slavery, attack
Objective Rewind • Describe how the Compromise of 1850 and Fugitive Slave Law increased tensions between the North and South.
Fugitive Slave Law - 1850 • Southerners wanted states’ rights and a weak federal government • Accept in 1 situation – capturing and returning fugitive slaves • 1793 Fugitive slave law allowed slave owners to cross state lines to recapture their property and bring it before any local judge or federal court to prove ownership.
Fugitive Slave Law - 1850 • Fugitives have no protection of Habeas Corpus, no jury trial, no right to testify on own behalf. • Northerners view fugitive laws as an invitation to kidnap and seize free blacks.
Fugitive Slave Law - 1850 • Professional slave catchers did not take precautions to make sure they captured the right person nor did the judges go out of their way to make sure the “fugitive” matched the description. • Many slave catchers didn’t bother to take their prey to court. • Burden of proof fell on the captured blacks, but gave them no legal power to prove their freedom.
Prigg v. Pennsylvania (1842) • 1837, Pennsylvania convicted Edward Prigg of kidnapping. • Seized a slave woman and her children • Returned them to slavery in Maryland. • Prigg’s lawyers appealed to the Supreme Court.
Prigg v. Pennsylvania (1842) • Supreme Court declared Pennsylvania anti-kidnapping law of 1826 unconstitutional. • Upheld the fugitive slave law of 1793 stating that a slave owner had a right to his property. • Underground Railroad was developed.
Compromise of 1850 To Please the North • California admitted as a FREE State. • Banned slave trade in Washington, D.C.
Compromise of 1850 To please the South • Territories would decide for themselves if slavery was to be allowed. • Fugitive Slave Law allows gov’t officials to arrest anyone accused of being a slave. • Required Northerners to help in capturing escaped slaves.
Compromise of 1850 • Outrage in the North • Many Northerners vow to resist the Fugitive Slave Law • Northerners angry at seeing innocent families torn apart • Residents band together to resist Fugitive Slave Law. • Threaten to harm slave catchers. • Underground Railroad • Jury influence
Take NOTES! • After the video clip, explain how the Compromise of 1850 and Fugitive Slave Law pleased both anti-slavery and pro-slavery sides.
Compromise of 1850 North Gets: South Gets: • California comes in as free state. • Slave trade is outlawed in Washington, DC. • Texas loses border dispute with New Mexico. • No slave restrictions in New Mexico or Utah. • Slavery allowed in Washington, DC. • Texas gets $10 million. • Fugitive Slave Law
Closure: • Describe how the Compromise of 1850 and Fugitive Slave Law increased tensions between the North and South. • Rights, proof, resist, kidnap, officials
1 minutes – Share & Collect • Discuss with 2 people how the Compromise of 1850 and Fugitive Slave Law made anti-slavery and pro-slavery people happy.
Notes • Fugitive Slave Law • Slave catchers may enter free states to capture slaves. • Northerners see this as a way to kidnap free blacks. • Officials must aid in slave capture • Northerners resist • Underground Railroad • violence toward slave catchers • Burden of proof on suspected slaves – no rights!