AKUNTANSI MANAJEMEN LANJUTAN DESENTRALISASI PENGENDALIAN OPERASIONAL email@example.com
PERTEMUAN I, 30 September 2013 • REVIEW KONSEP AKUNTANSI MANAJEMEN • AKUNTANSI PERTANGGUNGJAWABAN • DESENTRALISASI DAN HARGA TRANSFER
Definition of Management Accounting: IMA Management accounting is a profession that involves partnering in management decision making, devising planning and performance management systems, and providing expertise in financial reporting and control to assist management in the formulation and implementation of an organization’s strategy.
Managerial Accounting as a Career Professional Organizations Institute of Management Accountants (IMA) Publishes Management Accounting and research studies. Administers Certified Management Accountant program Develops Standards of Ethical Conduct for Management Accountants
Professional Ethics Ethical business practices build trust and promote loyal, productive relationships with customers, employees and suppliers. Many companies have written codes of ethics which serve as guides for employees to follow.
Professional Ethics • Competence • Confidentiality • Integrity • Objectivity • Resolution of Ethical Conflict
Follow applicable laws, regulations and standards. Maintain professional competence. Prepare complete and clear reports after appropriate analysis. Professional Ethics Competence
Do not disclose confidential information unless legally obligated to do so. Do not use confidential information for personal advantage. Ensure that subordinates do not disclose confidential information. Professional Ethics Confidentiality
Avoid conflicts of interest and advise others of potential conflicts. Do not subvert organization’s legitimate objectives. Recognize and communicate personal and professional limitations. Professional Ethics Integrity
Avoid activities that could affect your ability to perform duties. Refrain from activities that could discredit the profession. Refuse gifts or favors that might influence behavior. Communicate unfavorable as well as favorable information. Professional Ethics Integrity
Professional Ethics Communicate information fairly and objectively. Objectivity Disclose all information that might be useful to management.
Professional Ethics Resolution of Ethical Conflict • Follow established policies of your organization. • If unresolved or if policy does not exist: • Clarify relevant concepts in a confidential discussion with an objective advisor to explore possible courses of action. • Discuss problem with immediate supervisor.
Professional Ethics Resolution of Ethical Conflict • If immediate supervisor is involved in the unethical behavior, discuss at the next level. • If problem is not resolved, the last resort is to resign. • Generally, do not communicate ethical conflicts to outsiders.
Major Themes in Managerial Accounting Behavioral Issues Information and Incentives Costs and Benefits Managerial Accounting
Evolution and Adaptation in Managerial Accounting Service Vs. Manufacturing Firms Computer-Integrated Manufacturing Information and Communication Technology Emergence of New Industries Change Global Competition Product Life Cycles Total Quality Management Focus on the Customer Cross-Functional Teams Time-Based Competition Continuous Improvement Just-in-Time Inventory
Managerial Accounting in Modern Production Environments • Key developments that reshaped Managerial Accounting include: • Integrated information systems • Web hosting • Just-in-time and lean production • Total Quality Management • Theory of constraints • Benchmarking and continuous improvement
The Goal of Good Management is to Create Value • Cost Management is applying the value criteria to every decision we make, every activity we perform, and every process we complete. • Modern accounting systems do not just evaluate good stewardship but must provide managers with the information managers need to improve value. • Management accounting systems are used to enhance both decision making and management control. • Management accounting systems do not need to be perfect, only ‘good enough’ to increase value.
New Management Trends to Create Value • Encourage Management Accounting Systems Redesign, for example. • Customer focus • Quality focus • Delivery focus • Outsourcing and the virtual company • Communications • Shortening product life cycles • Team development • Deregulation in the service sector
Perubahan Lingkungan Bisnis Menentukan hal apa saja yang tidak perlu dilakukan, bagaimana perusahaan harus dikelola dan bagaimana pekerjaan dilakukan Beberapa praktek manajemen: • JIT (Just In Time) • Manajemen Mutu Total (TQM) • Rekayasa Ulang • Teori Kendala (Theory of Constrain/TOC)
JIT (Just In Time) • Sistem Pengendalian Persediaan dan Produksi JIT: >> Membeli BB dan memproduksi unit output sesuai dengan permintaan aktual dari pelanggan >> Persediaan dikurangi sampai pada tingkat minimum (bahkan sampai titik nol) • Dampak JIT (perush. Manufaktur): >> Efisiensi dan mengurangi biaya (penyimpanan dan pemesanan) serta meningkatkan efisiensi dan efektifitas operasi. Bahan bahan baku yang diterima segera masuk ke proses produksi, bahan produksi lainnya segera digabungkan dan dikerjakan, dan produk yang telah jadi segera dikirimkan kepada pelanggan.
TQM (Total Quality Management) Perbaikan terus menerus yang memiliki karakteristik : >> Fokus pada pelayanan pelanggan >> Pemecahan masalah secara sistematis dengan menggunakan tim yang ada di garda depan yang dibekali dengan salah satu alat manajemen >> Penentuan tolok ukur (benchmarking) yang dilakukan dengan mempelajari organisasi terbaik yang ada untukmenjelaskan tugas tugas tertentu.
Increased emphasis on product quality because goods are produced only as needed Total Quality Management (TQM) - a philosophy of zero defects - Gambaran utama TQM adalah meningkatkan produktivitas dengan mendorong penggunaan pengetahuan dalam mengambil keputusan dan menekan perilaku defensif yang tidak produktif. LO 8 Identify trends in management accounting.
Rekayasa Ulang Proses (Process Reengineering-PR) Meliputi desain ulang secara menyeluruh proses bisnis dalam rangka menghilangkan aktivitas yang tidak bernilai tambah dan mengurangi kemungkinan terjadinya kesalahan. Rekayasa ulang mengandalkan pada spesialis dari luar perusahaan. >> Merupakan pendekatan yang lebih radikal dibandingkan TQM >> Sebagai ganti perbaikan sistem yang dirancang serial dan bertahap. >> Dalam PR suatu proses bisnis diplot dalam sebuah diagram secara detail, dikritik dan kemudian dirancang ulang untuk menghilangkan langkah-langkah yang tidak diperlukan, mengurangi kemungkinan terjadinya kesalahan dan mengurangi biaya. Proses bisnis adalah serangkaian tahapan yang harus dilakukan untuk menjalankan tugas-tugas dalam dalam suatu bisnis.
Teori Kendala (Theory of Contrains/ToC) Menekankan pada pentingnya mengelola kendala yang dihadapai oleh organisasi. Karena kendala adalah sesuatu yang menghalangi organisasi, proses perbaikan akan efektif kalau difokuskan pada kendala yang dihadapi • Teori kendala didasarkan pada pandangan bahwa manajemen kendala secara efektif merupakan kunci keberhasilan
Activity-Based-Costing (ABC) • Allocates overhead based on use of activities • Results in more accurate product costing and scrutiny of all activities in the value chain • Balanced Scorecard • Evaluates operations in an integrated fashion • Uses both financial and non-financialmeasures • Links performance measures to overall company objectives LO 8 Identify trends in management accounting.
Review Question • Which of the following managerial accounting techniques attempts to allocate manufacturing overhead in a more meaningful manner? • Just-in-time inventory. • Total-quality management. • Balanced scorecard. • Activity-based costing. LO 8 Identify trends in management accounting.
The Strategic Approach to Teaching Management Accounting Topics—An Introduction
Strategic Cost Management:Basic Concepts Strategic decision making is choosing among alternative strategies with the goal of selecting a strategy, or strategies, that provides a company with reasonable assurance of long-term growth and survival The key to achieving this goal is to gain a competitive advantage. Strategic cost management is the use of cost data to develop and identify superior strategies that will produce a sustainable competitive advantage.
Competitive Advantage Competitive advantage is the process of creating better customer value for the same or lower cost than that of competitors or creating equivalent value for lower cost than that of competitors. Customer value is the difference between what a customer receives (customer realization) and what the customer gives up (customer sacrifice). The total product is the complete range of tangible and intangible benefits that a customer receives from a purchased product.
Michael Porter: StrategicPositioning • CostLeadership—outperform competitors by producing at the lowest cost, consistent with quality demanded by the consumer • Differentiation—creating value for the customer through product innovation, product features, customer service, etc. that the customer is willing to pay for
Strategic Positioning There are three general strategies that have been identified: • cost leadership • product differentiation • focusing
Strategic Positioning A cost leadershipstrategy happens when the same or better value is provided to customers at a lower cost than a company’s competitors. Example:A company might redesign a product so that fewer parts are needed, lowering production costs and the costs of maintaining the product after purchase.
Strategic Positioning (continued) A productdifferentiation strategy strives to increase customer value by increasing what the customer receives (customer realization). Example:a retailer of computers might offer on-site repair service, a feature not offered by other rivals in the local market.
Strategic Positioning (continued) A focusing strategy happens when a firm selects or emphasizes a market or customer segment in which to compete. Example:Paging Network, Inc., a paging services provider, has targeted particular kinds of customers and is in the process of weeding out the nontargeted customers.
Consequences of Lack of Strategic Cost-Management Information • Decision-making based on guess and intuition • Lack of clarity about direction and goals • Over time, lack of a clear and favorable perception of the firm by customers and suppliers • Incorrect decisions: choosing products, markets, or manufacturing processes that are inconsistent with the organization’s strategy • For control purposes, cannot link performance effectively to strategic goals • …
Tools for Integrating Strategy into Management Accounting -- The Value Chain -- Strategy Maps & the Balanced Scorecard (BSC)
IntroducingStrategy Strengths Weaknesses OpportunitiesThreats Strategy Map Balanced Scorecard (BSC)
Value Chain • Refers to all activities associated with providing a product or service • For a manufacturing firm these include the following: LO 8 Identify trends in management accounting.
Industrial Value Chain The industrial value chain is the linked set of value-creating activities from basic raw materials to the disposal of the finished product by end-use customers. Fundamental to a value-chain framework is the recognition that there exist complex linkages and interrelationships among activities both within and external to the firm.
“Upstream” Activities Manufacturing/Operations “Downstream” Activities ValueChainAnalysis:A Detailed Look at Strategy… The Value Chain is a linked set of value-adding activities used by an organization to deliver its value proposition to its customers. It consists of:
Value-Chain Analysis • Identify value-chain activities • Develop competitive advantage by: • Identifying opportunities for adding value for the customer • Identifying opportunities for eliminating non- value added activities and reducing cost • Understand linkages among suppliers, the entity, and customers
Internal and External Linkages There are two types of linkages that must be analyzed and understood: internal and external linkages. Internal linkages are relationships among activities that are performed within a firm’s portion of the value chain. External linkages describe the relationship of a firm’s value-chain activities that are performed with its suppliers and customers. There are two types: supplier linkages and customer linkages.
Strategy Maps & the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) • The BSC and Strategy Map are used to align the organization’s activities with achieving strategic goals, using the four perspectives: • Financial • Customer • Internal Processes • Learning and Growth
vision & mission Exceed shareholder expectations Diversify income stream Increase sales volume Improve profit margins Financial Diversify customer base Increase sales to existing customers Customer Attract new customers Internal Process Target profitable market segments Optimize internal processes Develop new products Attract new customers Learning & Growth Develop employee skills Integrate systems
The Balanced Scorecard (BSC): Feedback to Strategy Strategy Map Balanced Scorecard (BSC)
Evolution of Cost Accounting Systems ABC (simple & minimal) ABC (multidimensional) Traditional Costing Resources Resources Resources Consumed by Consumed by Allocated to Activities Activities Consumed by Consumed by outputs Cost Objects Cost Objects channels Cost Objects Users