CONSTRUCTING REGIONAL ADVANTAGE: SELECTED POLICY APPROACHES FROM TURKEY YAPRAK GÜLCAN, YEŞİM KUŞTEPELİ, SEDEF AKGÜNGÖR UTRECHT, NETHERLANDS 11-13 February 2008
OUTLINE OF THE PRESENTATION 1.TEXTILE CLUSTERS IN TURKEY 2. NATIONAL TEXTILE POLICY PROJECT 3. DESCRIPTION OF THE CASES I) İSTANBUL-BURSA AXIS II) DENİZLİ III) GAZİANTEP-ADIYAMAN 4. RESEARCH I) RECENT RESEARCH II) FUTURE RESEARCH
1. TEXTILE CLUSTERS IN TURKEY • İstanbul – Apparel • Trakya – Textile Treatment • Bursa – Silk and Viscon from synthetic fibres, polyester • Denizli, Afyon, Uşak, İzmir – Thick yarn and cotton bathing gown, bedclothes, and blankets • Western Black Sea Region – Weaving • Adıyaman, Gaziantep, Şanlıurfa, Mardin, Kahramanmaraş – knitting apparel, and textiles
2. NATIONAL TEXTILE POLICY PROJECT Technical Assistance to Development of a National Clustering Policy Project • initiated within the framework of Pre-Accession Financial Assistance from EU to Turkey Programme – 2005. • Budget of the project is 6 million Euros. • Project commences at March 26th, 2007 and expected to be finalised at March 26th, 2009 (4 months extended). • The project aims to enhance Turkey’s international competitiveness and establish the linkages among Turkish and European Clusters with the aim of contributing to the objectives foreseen within the EU Lisbon Strategy.
I) İSTANBUL-BURSA AXIS LINKING OF KNOWLEDGE BASES AND NACE (SIC2002) We have data of these firms on activity, employment and address.
I) İSTANBUL-BURSA AXIS • 21 universities (private and public) and 2 techno-parks in İstanbul. • 560 non-governmental institutions in İstanbul. • One public university and no techno park in Bursa. • 101 non-governmental institutions in Bursa.
I) İSTANBUL-BURSA AXIS Technical Assistance to Establish Fashion and Textile Cluster in Turkey Project • within the framework of National Pre-Accession Financial Assistance Programme for Turkey 2003. • Project Dates: 10/01/2005- 09/11/2006. • Donor organization: European Union, Coordinator: Foreign Trade Undersecreteriat, beneficiary: ITKIB (Istanbul Textile and Apparel Exporters’ Association) • Target of the project is to strengthen the regional, national, and international linkages among the businesses of clothing industry and to enhance the international competitiveness.
I) İSTANBUL-BURSA AXIS • Establishment of supporting Institutions: • Istanbul Fashion Institute: aimed at building up the qualified workforce. • Istanbul Textile and ClothingConsultancy Centre: aimed at providing consultancy services and assistance in production process. • Istanbul Textile and Clothing Research and Development Centre: aimed at developing projects and new technologies. • İstanbul TextilePark: planned to be established by the first half of the year 2008, as the last chain of the project. Istanbul TextilePark is planned to be placed in a 7000 meter square area with laboratories, high-technology textile equipment, and demonstration fields. Besides the three supporting institutions, TextilePark is to be hosting Incubation Centre. The Incubation Centre aims to give assistance to the young and talented fashion and textile designers to establish their own trademarks.
II) DENİZLİ LINKING OF KNOWLEDGE BASES AND NACE (SIC2002) We have data of these firms on activity, employment and address.
II) DENİZLİ • One public university and no techno park in Denizli. • 40 non-governmental institutions in Denizli.
III) GAZİANTEP-ADIYAMAN LINKING OF KNOWLEDGE BASES AND NACE (SIC2002) We have data of these firms on activity, employment and address.
III) GAZİANTEP-ADIYAMAN • One public university and no techno-park in Gaziantep. • 78 non-governmental institutions in Gaziantep. • One public university and no techno park in Adıyaman. • 62 non-governmental institutions in Adıyaman.
III) GAZİANTEP-ADIYAMAN Adıyaman Textile and Clothing Cluster Project • Cluster Policies are implemented with the aim of regional economic development and enhancing the international competitiveness in textile and clothing industry. • The target of the Adıyaman Textile and Clothing Cluster Project is to increase the competitiveness of the sector within the region of Gaziantep, Malatya, Kahramanmaraş, Kilis, Mardin, Şanlıurfa and Diyarbakır. The accomplishment of this target is to be contributing to the regional economic development through increasing the value added of the region. • The project is classified as a GAP-GIDEM (South East Anatolia Entrepreneur Support Centre) Project, supported under the regional development funds of EU Commission and implemented with the joint effort (cooperation) of UNDP and GAP Regional Development Agency. Other contributors of the project are Governorship and Municipality of Adıyaman, Chambers of Trade and Industry, Adıyaman University, Adıyaman Provincial Directorate, KOSGEB (Small and Medium Sized Industry Development Organisation) Sectoral Associations, and Sectoral Businesses.
III) GAZİANTEP-ADIYAMAN Short Term Projects within the Scope of Cluster Project of Adıyaman • Development of the Adıyaman Training Institution (ATEM) to train the qualified workforce for textile and clothing industry • ATEM was opened in December/ 2004, and started education in March /2005. 610 students are qualified to get the certificates. It is estimated that the ATEM has contributed approximately 1 million Euros economically to Adıyaman annually. The contributors of the project were; Adıyaman Governorship, Adıyaman Municipality, Industry and Trade Provincial Directorate, Chambers of Trade and Industry, Adıyaman University, KOSGEB, Adıyaman GIDEM. Governorship and ITKIB provided the machinery and equipment, KOSGEB provided the training of the educators, GIDEM and KOSGEB paid the educators salaries, TGSD (Turkish Clothing Industry Association) and BAGEV (West Mediterranean Development Foundation) also supported the project.
III) GAZİANTEP-ADIYAMAN Short Term Projects within the Scope of Cluster Project of Adıyaman • Establishmentof the Consultancy Centre for assistance to the investors of the textile and clothing industry • Establishmentof the Information Centre and Internet Portal in order to provide the necessary source of information to the Consultancy Centre. • Establishment of a Marketing Centre for textile and clothing • Establishment of a laboratory for textile and clothing in the Adıyaman University • Establishment of a Centre for Permanent Education under the body of Adıyaman University • Establishment of a Design Centre for Textile and Clothing industry • Establishment of a Competition Research Centre • Establishment of an Entrepreneurship Centre under the body of Adıyaman University • Delegation of the coordination and assistance function of the cluster development project to the Regional Body.
4. RESEARCH • RECENT RESEARCH • “TOURISM AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE AGEAN REGION OF TURKEY” • byProf. Dr. Sedef Akgüngör, Assoc. Prof. Yeşim Kuştepeli, Assoc. Prof. Yaprak Gülcan, • Submitted to Regional Studies Association Working Group Seminar in İzmir, 3-4/04/2008
TOURISM AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE AGEAN REGION OF TURKEY Abstract Tourism sector has become a mass industry in the last two decades in Turkey and is considered to be a Significant sector for regional development particularly in the coastal areas of the south-western and western regions (Seckelmann, 2002). Thus, the tourism sector is a highpoint industry and a crucial public policy area for the Mediterranean and Aegean Regions. A long term national policy is necessary for sustainable public and private investment on tourism sector and thus on the regional development initiatives. The aim of the study is to investigate the potential of successful and sustainable contribution of the tourism sector for regional development in the Aegean Region of Turkey. In particular, the study aims to: 1) explore the differences in Aegean region’s cities (eight NUTS3 regions) with respect to differences in the importance of the tourism sector and 2) investigate the impact of transportation infrastructure and investment initiatives on the growth of the Aegean region’s tourism sector. The analysis aims to compare the NUTS3 regions from the perspective of the potential of the tourism industry for regional development in order to identify current challenges and opportunities for sound public policies. We use employment data as well as investments on tourism and transportation on in NUTS3 regions for the period of 1995-2006. The analysis intends to 1) calculate the location quotients for the tourism industry for each NUTS3 region in the Aegean region and 2) use an econometric model to understand the impact of investments on transportation and tourism on the growth of the tourism industry in the region.  The Location Quotient is a tool to show whether the regions is specialized in a particular industry thus revealing the city’s opportunities in tourism sector calling for public policy.
4. II) FUTURE RESEARCH • Plan to submit to: I) 7th European Urban and Regional Studies Conference “Diverse Europes: Urban and Regional Openings, connections and Exclusions”, 18-21 September 2008, İstanbul II) Regions: The Dilemmas of Integration and Competition?” Regional Studies Association Annual International Conference, 27-29 May 2008 in Prague, Czech Republic