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Developing a Healthy Diet to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Risk

Developing a Healthy Diet to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Risk. Dykibra J. Gaskin, MS, RD, LD/N. Question???. Can your diet affect your risk of developing a disease? Absolutely! Degenerative (a.k.a. chronic) vs. Infectious Often Irreversible

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Developing a Healthy Diet to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Risk

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  1. Developing a Healthy Diet to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Risk Dykibra J. Gaskin, MS, RD, LD/N

  2. Question??? • Can your diet affect your risk of developing a disease? • Absolutely! • Degenerative (a.k.a. chronic) vs. Infectious • Often Irreversible • Usually due to poor personal lifestyle choices • Related to aging

  3. Diet & Disease Risk cont’d • Infectious • Microbes, Bacteria, viruses, parasites • Transmitted person to person via fluids, touching, air, water or food • Cholera, Influenza, etc. • Advances in medicine & public health measures have decreased death due to infectious diseases

  4. Major Chronic Diseases • Cardiovascular (Heart) Diseases • (All diseases associated with the Heart & Arteries) • Type 2 Diabetes • Kidney and/or Liver Diseases • Cancers • Chronic Respiratory Diseases (Emphysema, COPD, etc.) • Osteoporosis Many of these chronic diseases are DIET-RELATED! Your diet can increase your RISK of DEVELOPING these diseases!

  5. The Concept of Risk Factors • Risk factors show a correlation with a disease – that is, they occur together with the disease. • Not proven to be “causal” • A diet may contribute to several degenerative diseases. • A person’s family history and laboratory test results can reveal strategies for disease prevention.

  6. Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) • Over 80 million Americans suffer from CVD • Over 1 million Americans die yearly due to CVD more than any other disease. • In all forms of CVD, women are affected the most. • Minority women are suffer from CVD more than white women

  7. Major CVD Risk Factors • Non-modifiable • Genetics or family medical history • But we are not doomed to have what our parents & grandparents have! • Knowing your family history can shed light on what you need to do now!

  8. Major CVD Risk Factors • Modifiable Risk Factors (Lifestyle Factors) • Low HDL (Good) Cholesterol Levels • High LDL (Bad) Cholesterol Levels • Hypertension (High blood Pressure) • Type 2 Diabetes • Obesity (especially Central Obesity) • Physical Inactivity • Smoking • High Sodium • ATHEROGENIC DIET (Diet high in fats, saturated, trans fats AND LOW in fruits, veggies, whole grains) Many of the same risk factors are related to more than 1 or 2 chronic diseases

  9. Atherogenic Diet • Diet high in fat increases risk of: • Overweight/Obesity • Type 2 Diabetes • Hypertension • Cancers • High Cholesterol Levels • Kidney Failure • Complications related to the above

  10. Atherogenic Diet • Increases LDL (Bad) Cholesterol • Recommendations: • Lowering intakes of saturated fat and trans fat lowers blood LDL cholesterol and this reduces heart disease. • Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend: • No more than 10% of calories from saturated and trans fat combined • No more than 35% of calories from total fat • Less than 300 mg a day of cholesterol

  11. Cholesterol • Our body makes all the cholesterol it needs • Don’t need any from our diet! • Mostly found in animal products: eggs, meats, etc. • High intake  Clogged arteries, atherosclerosis (hardening of arteries), heart attack, stroke, heart failure

  12. Atherosclerosis

  13. Lowering LDL (BAD) Cholesterol

  14. Unsaturated Fats • Don’t increase bad cholesterol (LDL) in blood the way saturated fats do. • Poly and Mono-unsaturated fats found in nut, vegetable, & fish oils • Fish oils are associated with lower risk of heart disease • Choose lean/baked fish 1-2 times/week • Eat 1/3 C of almonds, walnuts, cashews, flaxseed to increase unsaturated fat intake

  15. Heart Healthy Diet • When diets are rich in whole grains, vegetables, and fruits, rates of CVD are low and life expectancies are long.

  16. Salt, Sodium, & Blood Pressure (Hypertension) • High intakes of salt and sodium are associated with hypertension. • As salt intakes decrease, blood pressure drops in a stepwise fashion. • African Americans, people with a family history of hypertension, people with kidney problems or diabetes, and older people respond more sensitively to a reduction in salt. • No one should consume more than 2,300 mg of sodium per day

  17. How Does Nutrition Affect Hypertension? • To prevent hypertension: • Lower salt intake • Lose weight if needed • Use alcohol in moderation • Increase consumption of fruits, vegetables, fish, and low-fat dairy products • Reduce intakes of fat • Calcium, potassium, magnesium, and other nutrients seem to also play a role, as does physical activity • DASH diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension)

  18. DASH Diet: DietaryApproaches toStopHypertension The DASH Eating Plan From Sizer & Whitney, 2008

  19. How does starches & refined white flour & sugar effect cardiovascular disease risk? • Excess calories from sweets/refined starches Overweight & Obesity Increased CVD risk • Moderate sugars by: • Choosing Whole Grains instead of white breads, rice & pasta • Limit rolls, corn breads, etc at the table • Snack on healthy sweets like fruits, low-fat ice cream or frozen yogurt, bake a low-sugar dessert. • Discuss sugar alternatives with physician • Watch PORTIONS!

  20. Snack Smart! • Eat 1-2 Healthy Snacks daily • Include variety from all food groups • Prepare and baggy them ahead of time! • Choose HEALTHY Snacks! • Fruit or dried fruit • Nuts/Seeds • Raw Veggies • Yogurt • Granola bars* (some are high in fat-check labels) • Shelf-Stable Cheeses-Laughing Cow • Peanut Butter • Cheese or PB with Crackers.

  21. Watch Portions!!! Cutting portion sizes can save 50, 100 or more calories…. • ½ of your plate should be Veggies/Fruits! • Choose Whole Grains! • Choose LEAN Protein! • Add more veggies to your day… • Choose Low-fat Dairy…

  22. Portion Control at Home http://www.doctoryum.com http://www.diabeticlivingonline.com

  23. Drink. More. Water! • Sugar-sweetened drinks, sodas, sweet teas all have empty calories! • All calories, no vitamins, no minerals = NO BENEFITS! • Adds additional 400+ calories/day • Save $$ and squeeze, lemon, orange, lime or drop a cucumber into your water for flavor! Large Sweet Tea and Large Sprite (32 oz) both = about 300 calories!!

  24. Your Body is a Temple • 1 Corinthians 6:19-20. • “19Do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit that is in you, whom you have received from God? 20You are not your own, you were bought at a price. Therefore, honor God with your body.” "God. Ask him... I took good care of myself, the way He wanted me to."

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