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Lectures on Knowledge Management

Lectures on Knowledge Management

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Lectures on Knowledge Management

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  1. Lectures on Knowledge Management Khurshid Ahmad Professor of Artificial Intelligence Centre for Knowledge Management March 2002

  2. COMPUTER-BASEDKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT grapeVINE Technologies A Knowledge Management organisation that was taken over: iPlanet and Sun Microsystems announce Sun’s Acquisition of grapeVINE Technologies. grapeVINE’s industry leading Knowledge Management technology will integrate with iPlanet Portal Server to bring a new level of intelligence to e-commerce portal platforms.

  3. COMPUTER-BASEDKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT WORKFLOW & KNOWLEDGE FLOW Current knowledge management systems can be viewed as workflow systems that deliver work on time to the relevant persons and results despatched in time, efficiently and cost effectively from the workers to the managers. There is an increase in productivity, and innovation is facilitated by easy and timely access to information about products, services, human resources and the documents produced by and related to the organisation.

  4. COMPUTER-BASEDKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Challenge of Knowledge Management • To efficiently capture trace of knowledge (to process, index and retrieve text/images) • To encourage people to record their knowledge based on experience i.e. produce a trace, and to use other people’s trace of knowledge • To reward (punish?) people for sharing (or not sharing) their knowledge • To keep the traces updated: • Motivate the knowledge creation ‘crew’ to work as a team  Encourage the knowledge creation ‘crew’ to share values and aspirations

  5. COMPUTER-BASEDKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT WORKFLOW & KNOWLEDGE FLOW The knowledge management of the future should facilitate the work of the knowledge engineer in addition to facilitating the flow of documents. This suggests that a knowledge management system should have some comprehension of the notations and conventions used by humans in communicating orally or through documents.

  6. COMPUTER-BASEDKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT KNOWLEDGE IN TEXT If any essence or trace of the knowledge of the individuals is left behind then it is usually found in documents, comprising words, illustrations and drawings, mathematical and other symbols.

  7. COMPUTER-BASEDKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT KNOWLEDGE IN TEXT • Usually, a tangible trace of specialist knowledge may be found in the document archives. • Knowledge management systems should be based on how humans disseminate knowledge through text. • The effective management of the documents emanating from organisations, is perhaps the first step in the effective organisation of knowledge.

  8. COMPUTER-BASEDKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT grapeVINE Technologies A Knowledge Management organisation that was taken over: iPlanet and Sun Microsystems announce Sun’s Acquisition of grapeVINE Technologies. grapeVINE’s industry leading Knowledge Management technology will integrate with iPlanet Portal Server to bring a new level of intelligence to e-commerce portal platforms.

  9. COMPUTER-BASEDKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT PROACTIVE SYSTEMS: KNOWLEDGE IN TEXT • Knowledge management systems track the growth of knowledge within organisations by a systematic and continuous examination of the documents within an organisation and across organisations. Computer systems capable of: • Capturing, analysing & summarising texts • Hyperlinking, classifying, updating texts • Extracting terms and names from texts, and • Securing and routing texts, • are being used to study how concepts are transformed into artefacts and how artefacts help in creating and revising concepts.

  10. COMPUTER-BASEDKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT PROACTIVE SYSTEMS: KMS INC. Knowledge Management Software (KMS) Inc. is a software developer in the knowledge management market (www.kmsoftware.com). The new website has led to a ‘significant improvement in the company’s ability to service its customers by shifting 85% of all incoming help desk calls to the site, where questions are answered automatically using the company’s pioneering Deskartes knowledge management technology’.

  11. COMPUTER-BASEDKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT KNOWLEDGE IN TEXT • Knowledge management systems track the growth of knowledge within organisations by a systematic and continuous examination of the documents within an organisation and across organisations. Computer systems capable of • capturing, analysing & summarising texts • extracting terms and names from texts, and • routing texts, • are being used to study how concepts are transformed into artefacts and how artefacts help in creating and revising concepts.

  12. COMPUTER-BASEDKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Microsoft Sharepoint • Microsoft have developed the SharePoint system: a set of two new technologies from Microsoft that were developed to facilitate information sharing both within organizations and over the Internet, • SharePoint Portal Server 2001 and • SharePoint Team Services. • Microsoft Sharepoint System is an innovative way of looking at how workers in an organisation share knowledge.

  13. COMPUTER-BASEDKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Microsoft Sharepoint • Knowledge management case studies clearly show that in any given enterprise small and ad hoc teams share information in very different ways than do large teams. • Small or ad hoc workgroups need informal means to work together on group deliverables, share documents, and communicate status with one another. •  Microsoft suggested solution SharePoint Team Services–based Web sites. • Large workgroups with structured processes need greater management over their information and require features like formal publishing processes and the ability to search for and aggregate content from multiple data stores and file formats. •  Microsoft suggested solution SharePoint Portal Server 2001

  14. COMPUTER-BASEDKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Microsoft Sharepoint • Microsoft SharePoint Team Services: • To create Web site for sharing information such as documents, calendars, announcements, and other postings. • Microsoft SharePoint Portal Server 2001 • To aggregate content • To manage documents • To create Web Portals • Technology used: E-mail, File Servers, Office XP, Browsers, Front Page, Text and Image Search DBMS, Document Management Systems, OLE DB, Microsoft ActiveX® Data Objects (ADO), Extensible Markup Language (XML)

  15. COMPUTER-BASEDKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Microsoft Sharepoint • E-mail E • File Servers, 1 • Office XP, E • Browsers, E • Front Page, E • Text and Image Search DBMS, 2 • Document Management Systems, 1 • OLE DB, 7 • Microsoft ActiveX® Data Objects (ADO), 2 • Extensible Markup Language (XML)

  16. COMPUTER-BASEDKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Microsoft Sharepoint

  17. COMPUTER-BASEDKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Microsoft Sharepoint Integrated Document Management The process from document creation through intranet publishing can be a string of disjointed actions, unconnected with business processes. SharePoint Portal Server includes features like document locking, versioning, and publishing and makes these features accessible to the average user. It delivers easy-to-use, document-management features that are integrated with the tools and applications that are used to create and manage documents, with Microsoft Windows® Explorer and Microsoft Office 2000 applications like Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, and Microsoft PowerPoint®.

  18. COMPUTER-BASEDKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Microsoft Sharepoint

  19. COMPUTER-BASEDKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Microsoft Sharepoint

  20. COMPUTER-BASEDKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Microsoft Sharepoint

  21. COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Microsoft Inc. The conventional ‘waterfall approach’ to software development Requirements Specification Detailed Design (modules)

  22. COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Microsoft Inc. Requirements Specification Detailed Design (modules) Module Construction & Debug Module Construction & Debug Module Construction & Debug The conventional ‘waterfall approach’ to software development Integration and System Test

  23. COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Microsoft Inc. Requirements Specification Detailed Design (modules) Module Construction & Debug Module Construction & Debug Module Construction & Debug The conventional ‘waterfall approach’ to software development Integration and System Test Module Rework Module Rework Module Rework Re-integration and System Test

  24. COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Microsoft Inc. • “SYNCH-AND-STABILIZE” DEVELOPMENT PROCESS • Planning Phase • Vision Statement; • Outline & Working Specification; • Development Schedule; • Feature Team Formation • Development Phase • Feature Development in 3 or 4 Milestones • Stabilization Phase • Code Completion; • &  Testing; Final Stabilization; Ship Software

  25. COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Microsoft Inc. Planning Phase VISION STATEMENT E.g. 15 Features and Prioritisation Done by Product (& Program) Management OUTLINE & WORKING SPECIFICATION Done by Program Managers with Developers. Define Feature Functionality, Architectural Issues & Component Interdependencies • “SYNCH-AND-STABILIZE” DEVELOPMENT PROCESS DEVELOPMENT SCHEDULE & FEATURE TEAM FORMATION A big feature team will have 1 Program Manager, 5 Developers, 5 Testers

  26. COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Microsoft Inc. • “SYNCH-AND-STABILIZE” DEVELOPMENT PROCESS Planning Phase VISION STATEMENT E.g. 15 Features and Prioritisation Done by Product (& Program) Management OUTLINE & WORKING SPECIFICATION Done by Program Managers with Developers. Define Feature Functionality, Architectural Issues & Component Interdependencies DEVELOPMENT SCHEDULE & FEATURE TEAM FORMATION A big feature team will have 1 Program Manager, 5 Developers, 5 Testerm Development Phase FEATURE DEVELOPMENT IN 3 OR 4 MILESTONES Program Managers: Evolve the Specification Developers: Design, Code, Debug Testers: Test, Paired with Developers

  27. MICROSOFT’S “SYNCH-AND-STABILIZE” DEVELOPMENT PROCESSTime: Usually 12- or 24- month Cycles COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Microsoft Inc. Planning Phase Development Phase FEATURE DEVELOPMENT IN 3 OR 4 MILESTONES Program Managers: Evolve the Spec Developers: Design, Code, Debug Testers: Test, Paired with Developers Stabilisation Phase Feature Complete CODE COMPLETE and  TEST, FINAL STABILZATION & SHIP Program Managers: Monitor OEMs, ISVs, Customer Feedback Developers: Final Debug, Code Stabilization Testers: Recreate and Isolate Errors

  28. Development Phase Milestones Breakdown COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Microsoft Inc. MILESTONE 1 (first 1/3 features) Development (Design, Coding. Prototyping) Usability Lab Private Release Testing Daily Builds Feature Debugging Feature Integrations Code Stabilisation (no severe bugs) Buffer Time (20-30%)

  29. COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Microsoft Inc. Development Phase Milestones Breakdown MILESTONE 1 (first 1/3 features) Development (Design, Coding. Prototyping) Usability Lab, Private Release Testing, Daily Builds Feature Debugging, Feature Integrations, Code Stabilisation (no severe bugs), Buffer Time (20-30%) MILESTONE 2 (next 1/3 features) Development Usability Lab Private Release Testing Daily Builds Feature Debugging Feature Integrations Code Stabilisation Buffer Time

  30. COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Microsoft Inc. Development Phase Milestones Breakdown MILESTONE 1 (first 1/3 features) Development (Design, Coding. Prototyping) Usability Lab, Private Release Testing, Daily Builds Feature Debugging, Feature Integrations, Code Stabilisation (no severe bugs), Buffer Time (20-30%) MILESTONE 2 (next 1/3 features) Development, Usability Lab, Private Release Testing, Daily Builds Feature Debugging, Feature Integrations, Code Stabilisation Buffer Time MILESTONE 3(last 1/3 features) Development, Usability Lab Private Release Testing, Daily Builds Feature Debugging, Feature Integrations Feature Complete Code Complete Code Stabilisation Buffer Time Zero Bug Release Release to Manufacturing

  31. COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Microsoft Inc.

  32. COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG1 • During the 1980’s Siemens AG, a multinational, faced major challenges precipitated by political, economic and technological developments of the time. • Siemens is conglomerate in an old fashioned sense: its business ranges from global telecommunications to advanced chip manufacture, and from building/factory systems to health & medical systems. • Various constituents of the conglomerate have reported the use of knowledge management to transform its business from a centralised to a diversified and lean business.

  33. COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG1 Within Siemens AG, a number of its conglomerates have developed methods and systems to manage knowledge: 1Tom Davenport and Gilbert Probst. (2000) (Eds.) Knowledge Management Case Book – Siemens Best Practises. Munich: Publicis MCD Verlag. pp 22-39

  34. COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG • Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management • Until the 1980’s the principal customers of telecommunications equipment were large (near) monopoly state PT&T companies or Bell in the USA  Post 1980’s telecomms markets were DEREGULATED and the monopolies were unbundled. • The use of computers for switching and routing changed the equipment market altogether. • New entrants challenged former monopoly suppliers with new cheaper products and services

  35. Customised components (system integration) Technical solution (knowledge) Functional solution (knowledge) Integration of Complementers; Architecture Configurations Leasing contracts; Business case Pricing Scheme COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management- ‘Conceptual elements constituting a telecommunication solution. Sales Project: Complete Customer Solution Material & Physical components Integration into network of customers Switches Routers Base Stations New knowledge products

  36. COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG • Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management • ‘ShareNet is an interactive knowledge management tool through which global network of shared knowledge could be established’1. • Share Net is a ‘business application system’ that allows to share knowledge and innovation on a global basis. • Share Net was designed to ‘foster the emergence of best practice sharing’2

  37. COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG • Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management • Typical KM systems are often ‘intranet based [..] “document repositories”’2. • Share Net is an interactive medium designed to act as a business application used to dissemintate experience based knowledge.

  38. COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG Criticial Success Factors3 • Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management • Leadership • Organisational Structure and Roll-out • Motivation and rewards • Organisational Culture and Change • Viable Business Case

  39. COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG Criticial Success Factors3 • Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management • Leadership: • The ShareNet Committee comprising 1 Siemens ICN Board Member; two Business Transformation Partners; 8 ICN local companies representatives (offices in 160 countries) • The Knowledge Officers comprised Share Net Committee.

  40. COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG Criticial Success Factors3 • Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management • Organisational Culture and RollOut: • Input of (undocumented) knowledge and the re-use of the elicited knowledge was the key. Leading experts acted as Contents Editors of the knowledge that was supplied by the knowledge workers. • Share Net had local consultants, acting as trainers in and facilitators of ShareNet, had IT support and -email hotline • ShareNet Committee held a bootcamp, campaigns to precipitate structural change within the organisation.

  41. COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG Criticial Success Factors3 • Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management • Organisational Culture and RollOut: • Avoid the creation of a document repository; • Avoid brochureware – sales/marketing hype • Create a knowledge-base rather than an information-base or data base

  42. COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG Criticial Success Factors3 • Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management • Motivation and Reward System • The ICN ShareNet Quality Assurance and Reward System was designed to encourage the capture and re-use of knowledge • A frequent-flyer/loyalty card scheme was set in place: More knowledge deposited and more knowledge re-used was rewarded by shares in Share Net. Shares were convertible into places on conferences or into ‘telecommunications equipment.

  43. COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management ShareNet was organised in four concentric layers: • Share Net Committee --- the innermost layer; the highest decision making body for the developemnt of Share Net • the Technology/Support Layer -- Global Editor; User Hotline; IT Support • ShareNet Managers --- Supports contributors in capturing project experiences and marketing know-how, drives the development of reusable knowledge • Contributors --- Sales and Marketing people worldwide contirbuting their project experiences and methods into the ShareNet knowledge base.

  44. Global Editor User Hotline ShareNet Committee IT Support COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG Share Net Managers C C Share Net Managers C Share Net Managers C C C Share Net Managers C Share Net Managers C C C C C

  45. Share Net Managers C C Share Net Managers C Share Net Managers C Global Editor User Hotline ShareNet Committee C C Share Net Managers IT Support C Share Net Managers C C C C C COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG Ars Digita built Share Net for ICN www.arsdigita.com/customers/casestudies/siemens090700

  46. COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management ShareNet – a business application system ShareNet was designed to emphasise in-depth business understanding rather being IT-focussed. Gibbert et al argue that the focus on IT had ‘proved to be a pitfall of many similar knowledge management systems.’ (2000:31). ShareNet provides a network that has been explicitly designed as an interactive medium rather being just a conduit to ‘document repositories’. ShareNet functions as a business application, designed to dovetail ‘with employees’ ways of solving customer problems.

  47. COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management ShareNet – a business application system A data-base requires an application program for the data to be used effectively that is the data be processed according to the user needs and requirements. A business application program helps to access and to some extent to interpret the data (in a data base)

  48. COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management • ShareNet attempts to cover both the explicit and tacit knowledge of the sales value-creation process. • This includes project know-how, technical- and functional-solution components, and knowledge about the business environment (e.g., customer, competitor, market, technology and partner knowledge). • ShareNet was designed to emphasise experience-based knowledge. • Knowledge about the different steps of the value-creation chain was transferred to ShareNet solution objects (e.g., technical- or functional-solution knowledge) and ShareNet environment objects (e.g., customer or market knowledge). • ShareNet’s focus is less on ‘brochureware’, than on personal statements, comments, the ‘field experience’ of sales employees, or the real-life tested pros and cons of a solution.

  49. COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management • Share Net developers chose four ‘areas of intervention’: • Cognitive knowledge or know what • Skills or know-how • Systems understanding or know-why • Self-motivated creativity or care why1 • The first three are different types of knowledge and the fourth refers to the knowledge creation process. 1. Gibbert et al (2000) pp 33.

  50. COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management