CHAPTER 3 SEVEN YEARS WAR
SEVEN YEARS WAR The Seven Years War was fought in three regions: Europe, North America and the Caribbean The North American war began in 1754 over fertile territory in the Ohio Valley. The North American war was also called the French and Indian War
SEVEN YEARS WAR CAUSES • As the Thirteen British colonies became more populated and prosperous, their citizens began to look towards the rich lands across the Appalachian mountains as providing new opportunities for settlement and economic growth
SEVEN YEARS WAR CAUSES • The French, who claimed the entire watersheds of the Mississippi and St. Lawrence Rivers—which included the Great Lakes and the Ohio River valley—became worried about British encroachments into this region and so they moved to set up a series of forts
SEVEN YEARS WAR CAUSES • The British, meanwhile, built their own forts at Oswego and Halifax, the government granted lands in the Ohio Valley to the Ohio Company and adventurous traders set up bases in the region
SEVEN YEARS WAR CAUSES • In 1750, British and French representatives met in Paris to try to solve these territorial disputes, but no progress was made • In 1752, the Marquis Duquesne was made governor-general of New France with specific instructions to take possession of the Ohio Valley, removing all British presence from the area
SEVEN YEARS WAR CAUSES • Dinwiddie, hearing of new French forts on the upper Allegheny River, sent out a young Virginia officer, George Washington, to deliver a letter demanding that the French leave the region • This mission was, not surprisingly, a failure, but when passing through the region where the Allegheny and the Monongahela form the Ohio, Washington noted that the point of land at the junction was an excellent spot for a fort
SEVEN YEARS WAR CAUSES • The following year, Duquesne sent troops to western Pennsylvania where they built forts at Presque Island (Erie) and on the Rivière aux Boeufs (Waterford) • At the same time, Robert Dinwiddie, Lieutenant Governor of Virginia, was granting land in the Ohio Valley to citizens of his colony, setting in motion the events which inevitably led to the French and Indian War
SEVEN YEARS WAR CAUSES • In early 1754, in response to Washington's suggestion, the British started to build a fort there, Fort Prince George, but French troops soon arrived and threw them out. • The French completed the fortification, renaming it Fort Duquesne. • Washington, meanwhile, had been sent out with a contingent of troops to help establish British control in the west, and when he heard of the surrender of Fort Prince George, he set up camp in Great Meadows, southeast of Fort Duquesne.
FRANCE Blue ENGLAND Green SPAIN Orange DESPUTED TERRITORY Yellow
SEVEN YEARS WAR CAUSES • Washington received a report that a nearby French contingent intended to attack, so he launched a preemptive strike against the French camp • This was the first engagement of the yet undeclared French & Indian War
SEVEN YEARS WAR Acadians • Acadia was the first permanent French settlement in North America, established at Port-Royal in 1604 • During the seventeenth century, about sixty French families were established in Acadia. They developed friendly relations with the aboriginal Mi'kmaq, learning their hunting and fishing techniques.
SEVEN YEARS WAR Acadians • The Acadians lived mainly in the coastal regions, farming land reclaimed from the sea through diking. • Living on the frontier between French and British territories, the Acadians found themselves on the front lines in each conflict between the powers.
SEVEN YEARS WAR Acadians • Acadia was passed repeatedly from one side to the other, and the Acadians learned to survive through an attitude of studied neutrality, refusing to take up arms for either side, and thus came to be referred to as the "French neutrals"
SEVEN YEARS WAR Acadians • In the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, France ceded the portion of Acadia that is now Nova Scotia (minus Cape Breton Island) to the British for the last time. • In 1730, the Acadians signed an oath swearing allegiance to the British Crown, but stipulating that Acadians would not have to take up arms against the French or Indians.
SEVEN YEARS WAR Acadians • However, in 1754, the British government, no longer accepting the neutrality previously granted to the Acadians, demanded that they take an absolute oath of allegiance to the British monarch, which would require taking up arms.
SEVEN YEARS WAR Acadians • The Acadians did not want to take up arms against family members who were in French territory, and believed that the oath would compromise their Roman Catholic faith, and refused. Colonel Charles Lawrence ordered the mass deportation of the Acadians.
SEVEN YEARS WAR Acadians
SEVEN YEARS WAR The Seven Years War • Early in the war, the French are successful against the British army • Their success is contributed to effective use of their Indian allies • Also, the French model Indian guerilla tactics
SEVEN YEARS WAR The Seven Years War • The French go on the offensive and strike the British on the frontier of their 13 colonies. The British are too scared to leave their forts • The French gain the upper hand until the British put new emphasis on fighting in the North American frontier (1757)
SEVEN YEARS WAR The Seven Years War • The British devise a four pronged attack against the French at Montreal, Quebec, Trois Riviers and the Great Lakes region of the French territory. Four armies march into New France • Due to colonial prejudice, the Marquois de Montcalm replaces Canadian-born Governor of New France, Vaudreuil, as commander of the French army
SEVEN YEARS WAR The Seven Years War • Under bitter disagreement, Montcalm takes a defensive approach, opposite of the offensive minded Vaudreuil • Moncalm does not want to rely on their Indian allies but rather utilize the fortress of Quebec. • Montcalm believes the guerilla tactics used by the Indians is unfair and ungentlemanly • Montcalm falls back to Quebec awaiting the British
SEVEN YEARS WAR The Seven Years War • By 1757, the British are putting more emphasis on the North American frontier than the French. The French are more concerned with the Caribbean islands • The British begin using their naval superiority especially in the Gulf of St. Lawrence • In 1758, the fortress of Louisbourg falls to the British
SEVEN YEARS WAR The Seven Years War • Led by General Braddock, the British continue their 4 pronged attack moving closer to Quebec. The French forces are falling back • By 1759, the French face a superior British military in North America. Outnumbered 3:1 in ships; 4:1 in troops; and 10:1 in dollars spent on the war • The French are losing every battle as they retreat to Quebec. Montcalm is confident the Quebec will hold
SEVEN YEARS WAR The Seven Years War • Quebec was built on the cliffs overlooking the St. Lawrence with gun emplacements aimed down at the river • By 1759, the British, lead by General Wolfe, arrive outside the walls of Quebec but winter is fast approaching • Wolfe delays because Quebec appears impenetrable
SEVEN YEARS WAR The Seven Years War • Wolfe learns from a French trader of a secret passage through a series of caves that leads to the plains behind the walls of Quebec • The British troops conceal their identity and hide themselves on ships that are disguised as French ships. The ships pass the French sentry and one-by-one the British troops go up this passage to the Plains of Abraham
SEVEN YEARS WAR The Seven Years War • When morning arrives, Montcalm is stunned to see the British army assembled. Montcalm, believing that it is cowardly to hide behind the walls of Quebec, marches his troops outside to engage the British • The Battle of the Plains of Abraham ensues where Wolfe and Montcalm are both mortally wounded. The French are defeated
SEVEN YEARS WAR The Seven Years War • Quebec surrenders in 1759 • This British victory should have been the end of the French presents in North America but it isn't • The British, now under General James Murray contemplate their next move with winter approaching • Murray believes that the French are not a defeated enemy. He knows that there is a French army of 7000 troops sitting in Montreal under commander La Vie
SEVEN YEARS WAR The Seven Years War • Murray has only 4000 tired troops in Quebec and he is forced to wait out the winter in Quebec - a hostile foreign city • The St. Lawrence river is frozen not allowing Murray out of or La Vie into Quebec • All eyes are on Montreal and La Vie but also on the St. Lawrence. Who will come sailing down the St. Lawrence once the ice melts? The French fleet means that Murray will have to surrender because supplies are low. The British fleet means that Murray will hold Quebec
SEVEN YEARS WAR The Seven Years War • The winter is harsh and many of Murray's troops die. The remaining army is demoralized, tired and home-sick • Even before the ice melts, La Vie marches from Montreal on to Quebec. The French defeat Murray and recapture Quebec • In spring however, the British fleet comes sailing down the St. Lawrence and they capture Quebec for a second time • New France surrenders with the arrival of the British fleet in 1760
SEVEN YEARS WAR The Seven Years War • Now the British hold the entire colony and the French have nothing. North America becomes British North America BNA • The Seven Years War does not end in 1760. The war still rages in Europe but finally ends in 1763 with a British victory • The Treat of Paris follows
SEVEN YEARS WAR Reasons for Quebec’s Defeat • The colony of New France was only accessible by the St. Lawrence – a route easily blockaded • The economy of New France did not encourage population growth • The size of the colony was difficult to defend
SEVEN YEARS WAR Reasons for Quebec’s Defeat • Internal dissention with Montcalm’s leadership • The military strategy for the defense of New France was flawed • The power and skill of the British Navy was overwhelming