The Social Welcome to Psychology, Sociology, & Anthropology! HSP3UI Day 1: Course Outline, Social Bingo The Cultured The Psycho
A man walked into a therapist's office looking very depressed. "Doc, you've got to help me. I can't go on like this.""What's the problem?" the doctor inquired."Well, I'm 35 years old and I still have no luck with the ladies. No matter how hard I try, I just seem to scare them away.""My friend, this is not a serious problem. You just need to work on your self-esteem. Each morning, I want you to get up and run to the bathroom mirror. Tell yourself that you are a good person, a fun person, and an attractive person. But say it with real conviction. Within a week you'll have women buzzing all around you."The man seemed content with this advice and walked out of the office a bit excited. Three weeks later he returned with the same downtrodden expression on his face. "Did my advice not work?" asked the doctor."It worked alright. For the past several weeks I've enjoyed some of the best moments in my life with the most fabulous looking women.""So, what's your problem?" "I don't have a problem," the man replied. "My wife does."
So, you’ve come to the right class! PHS - History and Social Science Department 2013 / 2014 HSP 3MI - Introduction to Anthropology, Psychology and Sociology Teachers:Ms. L. Strong Course Description: This course introduces the theories, questions and issues that are the major concerns of anthropology, psychology and sociology. Students will develop an understanding of the way social scientists approach the topics they study and the research methods they employ. Students will be given opportunities to explore theories from a variety of perspectives and to become familiar with current thinking on a range of issues that have interested social scientists in the three disciplines both in the past and present. NB: A copy of the course outline is also on my website!
Units of Study • Each person is simultaneously like no other person, • Like some other people, and like all other people. • The first part of the course will introduce you to the three different social sciences: Psychology, Sociology and Anthropology. The course will then move into each of the social sciences in more depth. • Introduction to Psychology, Anthropology and Sociology and Research Skills • Psychology: the brain and mental illness • Sociology: socialization, conformity and deviance • Anthropology: culture and multiculturalism in Canada
Assessment & Attendance Assessment and Evaluation: 70% Class work, partner and group work, assignments, tests and quizzes, presentations etc. 30% Summative evaluation: Final Exam -10% Major Project -20% Attendance Issues When you are away, the onus is on you to find out what work you have missed, complete the tasks, and come to class with any questions about the work. Tip: find a partner in the class who will collect notes/materials for you and fill you in about missed work. After doing your part, feel free to see your teacher for clarification of anything missed or for extra help. If you miss a test or assignment for a valid reason, you must initiate arrangements to write it. Generally, assume that you will write the test the first day you are back.
Due Dates & Late Assignments The following outlines the PHS History and Social Sciences Department policy for the late submission of assignments: All of the Essential Learning in Table 1 (on your outline) must be demonstrated through a variety of methods as described in the Assessment and Evaluation section and must be completedin order to earn this credit. It is also critically important for students to develop good personal management and planning skills. These skills will be reflected in the Learning Skills area of the report card. A presentation date that is missed will receive a mark of zero. In the case of unforeseen absences or illness, the assignment is due on the first day back with proper documentation. See the policy statement in the Student Handbook.
Plagiarism • Plagiarism is submitting another’s work, writing or ideas as your own.* This occurs when you: • fail to cite sources in an essay or paper carefully and adequately (you will be taught how to avoid this); • intentionally cut and paste an author’s writing from the internet or a book without using quotation marks and citing the source; • submit something written or created by another student or author or; • submit your own essay or written work in two different courses. • Plagiarism is a serious academic offence! It will result in an • automatic ZERO on the assignment. • Please clear up any questions or problems with citation before problems occur! * See the results of the latest (American) National Youth Ethics Survey: http://www2.wnct.com/nct/news/local/education/article/survey_shows_many_teens_lie_cheat_and_steal_their_way_through_high_school/25233/
Speaking of Cheating… • The Josephson Institute in the U.S. has been tracking American youth in regard to their practical ethics. Thousands of high school students are surveyed (12,000 in 2002, 30,000 in 2008). Note the trends. • Students who admitted they cheated on a test/exam in the past year. • Students who admitted they used the Internet to plagiarize. • Students who admitted they lied to their parents about something significant. *In my 2009 Gr. 12 Summer School class, 6 of the 15 plagiarized (40%).
What Does it Mean? • A few interesting stats: • 26% admitted confessed they lied on at least one or two questions on the survey (Experts agree that dishonesty on surveys usually is an attempt to conceal misconduct) • 93% said they were satisfied with their personal ethics and character • 77% said that when it comes to doing what is right, I am better than most people I know • The question is, why do our teens lie, cheat and steal more today?Some experts believe today’s teens “are reacting to intense pressures to achieve and that causes them to cut corners.” Others say the increase in these numbers is more likely “the reflection of a cynical society.” • What do you think? • Which explanation is ‘psychological,’ and which is more ‘sociological’?
Our Classroom • Seating Plan • You will have plenty of opportunities in group work to interact with your friends. • While I am leading the class, I find the class can easily be less focused if too many students can easily interact with their neighbours. • What Works: • Be PREPARED – Come organized for class, with the expectation that • You’ll learn something!!! (I know, right?!) • PARTICIPATE – Class activities work better when people participate • with a positive attitude. (Don’t be lame. I’ll know) • Be POLITE – Challenge ideas, don’t attack people. Give those who • don’t talk a lot a chance.
Psych-Soc-Anthro Bingo Activity Get signatures and identify the correct area from the list below to complete the bingo sheet. Culture Agent of Socialization Memory Genetics Nature-Nurture Brain Based Stage of Development Birth Order Theory Archaeology Mental Illness
Bingo Notes Genetics – the process of inheritance – eye colour, twins, family resemblance Brain – memory formation, right/left side dominance, logical/creative Nature/Nurture – second language facility, emotional patterns, musical ability Culture – lived in another country, exposed to different ways of thinking Media Socialization – mass media teaches what we need to know in order to participate in society Agent of Socialization - persons, groups, or institutions that teach us what we need to know in order to participate in society Group Socialization – Harris’s theory – peers more important for personality development (than parents) Birth Order Theory - Adler believed that the order in which you are born to a family inherently effects your personality Stages of Development – Erikson proposed eight stages through which a healthily developing person should pass Archaeology – Cultural Anthropologists rely on the findings of archaeology
You, Your Group, Your Culture • On a piece of paper: • - In the centre put the single most important thing or • person in your life • - Out from the centre, either draw or write about your: life aspirations, closest friends or family, hobbies, job, school, sports, beliefs, people you admire • - add colour
Your Notebook I suggest you set up the pages in your notebooks like this. I don’t expect you to record all the info. Topic(s): • Main Points • Look for headings • You don’t have to write every word • Supporting Details • Look for the raw information * If students make a good effort to keep notes, I will make my PowerPoint notes available on the website! Questions/Thoughts
Speaking of Website… I have one of those and you should use it! www.prestonhistory.weebly.com “But I HATE websites… why doesn’t Ms. Strong have Twitter?” Ya, well I got that too! @MsStrongPHS Add me! It’s not a personal account so please keep all Tweets professional
MMMM…. COOKIES!!!!! • PICK A PARTNER!!! • Partner One, wait out in the Hallway • Partner Two, you get to eat an Oreo Cookie! (Partner One will get one once Partner Two has eaten theirs)
Test Results Your Personality: 1. The whole thing.This means you consume life with abandon, you are fun to be with, exciting, carefree with some hint of recklessness. You are totally irresponsible. No one should trust you with their children. 2. One bite at a time.You are lucky to be one of the 5.4 billion other people who eat their Oreos this very same way. Just like them, you lack imagination, but that's okay, not to worry, you're normal. 3. Slow and Methodical.You follow the rules. You're very tidy and orderly. You're very meticulous in every detail with every thing you do to the point of being anal retentive and irritating to others. Stay out of the fast lane if you're only going to go the speed limit. 4. Feverous Nibbles.Your boss likes you because you get your work done quickly. You always have a million things to do and never enough time to do them. Mental breakdowns and suicides run in your family. Valium and Ritalin would do you good.
Test Results 5. Dunked.Every one likes you because you are always up beat. You like to sugar coat unpleasant experiences and rationalize bad situations into good ones. You are in total denial about the shambles you call a life. You have a propensity towards narcotic addiction. 6. Twisted apart, the inside, and then the cookie.You have a highly curious nature. You take pleasure in breaking things apart to find out how they work, though not always able to put them back together, so you destroy all the evidence of your activities. You deny your involvement when things go wrong. You are a compulsive liar and exhibit deviant, if not criminal, behavior. 7. Twisted apart, the inside, and then toss the cookie.You are good at business and take risk that pay off. You take what you want and throw the rest away. You are greedy, selfish, mean, and lack feelings for others. You should be ashamed of yourself. But that's ok, you don't care, you got yours. 8. Just the cookie, not the inside.You enjoy pain. 9. I just like to lick them, not eat themStay away from small furry animals and seek professional medical help - immediately.
Test Results 10. I don't have a favorite way, I don't like Oreo cookies.You probably come from a rich family, and like to wear nice things, and go to up-scale restaurants. You are particular and fussy about the things you buy, own, and wear. Things have to be just right. You like to be pampered. You are a prima donna. There's just no pleasing you.
The Social Sciences Psychology, Sociology and Anthropology are sciences that focus on understanding human behaviour. The names are based on Greek or Latin terms: Psychology – Gk. psyche [“spirit” or “soul”] + Gk. logos [“word” or “the study of”] Sociology – Lat. Socius [“companion”] + Gk. Logos Anthropology – Gk. Anthropos [“man”] + Gk. Logos Day 2-3 – Terms, Overview, Cases
Individually place terms, then Compare with a partner Key Terms Create a three column chart with the following headings: Place the following terms in the correct category: Perception Cognition Symbolic Interactionism Evolution Genetics Personality Bystander Effect Interventionism Intelligent Design Theory Natural Selection DNA Survey Research Chance Mutation Case Study Research Interview Research Participant Observation Gender Inquiry Model Functionalism Feminism Culture Institution Conflict School “Missing Link”
The Big Three Social Sciences Create an organizer like the following in your notebook. A handout will be provided on the website as well.
Three 20th CenturyConceptual Revolutions in Psychology PSYCHOANALYSIS Founded by Sigmund Freud HUMANISM Pioneers: Abraham Maslow BEHAVIORISM Pioneers: Carl Rogers John B. Watson (Founder) B. F. Skinner
Distinguishing Between TermsBeginning with the Letters: P S Y C H Psychology: the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. “Scientific” means... beliefs are based on empirical evidence —careful, systematic observations. Psychiatry: the branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders. Most similar to clinical psychology. Psychotherapy: the treatment of psychological disorders using psychological rather than biological methods. Psychoanalysis: a field introduced by Sigmund Freud consisting of a theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy; emphasizes the unconscious mind.
Some Specialty Areas Within Psychology Clinical Psychology: concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of relatively severe mental and behavioral disorders. Counseling Psychology: deals with problems of adjustment in everyday life (marital, social, occupational). Developmental Psychology: focuses on how people change and grow over the lifespan—infancy, childhood (child psychology), adolescence, adulthood, and old age (gerontology). Social Psychology: studies how an individual’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior are affected by other people. Industrial/Organizational Psychology (I/O): focuses on behavior in the workplace. Psychometrics: designs tests to measure mental abilities, personality traits, and symptoms of psychological disorders.
Sociology - Theories Conflict Theory - A theoretical framework in which society is viewed as being composed of groups competing for scarce resources. Functional Analysis - A theoretical framework in which society is viewed as a whole unit, composed of interrelated parts, each with a function that, when fulfilled, contributes to society’s equilibrium. Symbolic Interactionism- A theoretical perspective that focuses on how people use symbols to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and communicate with one another.
Primarily concerned with humans as a biological species • - Most closely related to natural sciences • - Major research areas: • Human evolution • Modern human variation Anthropology • Subfield of Anthropology, Philosophy, and English • Main research areas: • - How language is used • - Relationship between language and culture • - How humans acquire language Sometimes known as Ethnology, Cultural Anthropology examines contemporary societies and cultures throughout the world. Participant observation: Ethnography, ethnographic data
Characteristics of a ScientificApproach to Psychology • Qualifies its statements about human nature; states the conditions under which a generalization holds up. • Quantifies its statements about human nature; uses numbers to describe how much of something there is. • Follows rules of evidence to establish facts; key point... We must distinguish between observations (facts) and interpretations (theories).
Example: Alternative Parents Observation: Lesbian couples raise happier kids. True/False True • A recent study concluded that children raised by lesbians turned out better psychologically than those raised by a “traditional” married couple • The study followed children raised by lesbians who were artificially inseminated 25 yrs ago • Their children were happier, less aggressive, had less anxiety, and scored higher on “social competence” measures
The Jaycee Dugard Case Read the Article (Handout) Watch the video news clips of the recent case of Jaycee Dugard. http://youtu.be/0Yppy28PriI 2) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3cK5XVeenp4 Record the basic facts of the case (5 Ws) in point form. In groups, complete the following chart.
Introduction to Psychology, Sociology, Anthropology Day 3: ‘Common Sense’, Clear Thinking, Proper Inquiry Method, Ethics
Common Sense & Human Behaviour • ‘Common sense’ defined: • Sound judgment not based on specialized knowledge • Sound and prudent judgment based on a simple perception of the situation or facts • E.g. - What is our common sense understanding of shopping? • If we need it and can afford it, we can buy it • And if the store has it in stock, we buy it • And...
Common Sense about Humans Read the following statements. Which do you think are true, and which are false? • Violent crime is on the rise in Canada. • In terms of personal relationships, opposites attract. • Primitive societies have very little technology. • Poverty is decreasing in Canada. • Capital punishment prevents murders. • Children of divorced parents tend to have more problems in school. • Homeless people want to be out on the street. • Some people dream and some do not. • Young people from working-class backgrounds are more likely to commit crimes than those from middle-class backgrounds. • Men have always been dominant over women.
Every statement is FALSE! • Surprised? • Why is it difficult to be a good student of humanity simply by watching the news and observing people? • Possible answers: • media bias (esp. towards the sensational) • myths/misunderstandings • personal experience skewed by factors such as: age, gender, race, socio-economic background, culture… • personal/common understandings of language
Dangers to Clear Thinking • Having (and not acknowledging) bias (age bias, gender bias, ethnic, religious, political etc.) • Ignoring relevant research • ‘Jumping to conclusions’ • Relying on a small group/sample for general conclusions • Ignoring relevant test/research conditions • Mistaking coincidence for cause-effect • Relying on faulty/undocumented research • Read the short article (Overhead). Identify 5 problems with Rushton’s research.
Problems with J. Phillipe Rushton’s Evolution and Behaviour • Based on re-analysis of old data • Selective use of data – i.e. Only the data that fit • His own research broke some ethical rules • Inadequate documentation – no list of references • Ignoring relevant test conditions – e.g. malnourished • Supports prejudices – dangerous precedents • Overall – “lousy science”
Introduction to Psychology, Sociology, Anthropology Day 4: Inquiry Method, Ethics, PSA Question ID, Research Methods
Good Science – The Inquiry Method • Define the question or problem (May involve initial observation, measurement, or definition of a topic. E.g. Of planets before Newton) E.g. How does a part time job affect high school student grades? • Form an hypothesis – a possible answer E.g. The more time a student spends at work, the more the marks suffer. (Inverse relation: Hours increase, Grades decrease) • Perform experiment and collect data E.g. Report card results + sample survey for hour of work • Analyze the data for patterns E.g. 10-15 hrs grade increase • Interpret data and draw conclusions that serve as a starting point for new hypothesis (back to #2)
Examples • Q1: Do EC activities make a student more stressed? • H: Yes – because of the time commitment • Exp’t: Survey – students involved in EC – compare grades • Q2: Are dog owners gen. happier than cat owners? • H: Dog owners gen more happy – dogs more expressive • Exp’t – 1. examine behaviours, 2. survey of owners • Q3: Are students who lie to parents more prone to lie to teachers? • H: Yes- if at home then anywhere. Is there a gap? • Exp’t: Simple surveys, Interviews of parents & teachers
Examples • Q: Do humans feel more sympathy for injured animals than injured humans? • H: Humans more sympathy to animals (Cute factor) • Exp’t – Street surveys, questions, physiological response measurement
Think-Pair-Share Your turn: • With a partner, propose a question • Form an hypothesis • (an answer you might expect to find) • Come up with an idea for an experiment that you could use to prove/disprove your hypothesis • Share ideas with class
Social Science Research Methods • Case Studies • Repeated observations of the same situation or individual over a period of time • Detailed information about one situation • Difficult to draw general conclusions from one case • Used by all social sciences • Participant Observation • Done in the field rather than the lab • Researchers can observe how people behave in their usual surroundings • Researchers observe and talk to subjects and share in their activities
Research Methods - cont’d • Participant Observation – cont’d • Sometimes informants are used (= people from the group with whom researchers develop a close relationship; they help interpret the group’s activities) • Used mainly by sociologists and anthropologists • Library Research • Study, analyze, compare research, statistics etc. • Natural/Unstructured Observation • Done in the field, without predetermined idea • Observe people’s behaviour in normal setting, without interaction • Notes describe what people do and say • Develops ideas of subjects’ attitude and behaviours
Research Methods - cont’d • Natural/Structured Observation • Same as above, except uses predetermined criteria Sample Survey • Written/verbal survey that asks questions of a sample group of people that represents a larger group (re. age, sex, religion) • Anonymous responses (no specific identifying info required) • Used by sociologists to spot trends • Gets info about a larger group without direct contact with the whole group – the results are extrapolated • Multiple choice answers – easy to analyze but limited to answers supplied, so depth of response is not great • E.g. The General Survey – • Ask anyone • Needs to be a large sample (min. 1000) to get good info
Research Methods - cont’d • Respondents first answer a series of questions re. their age, sex, occupation, region, race etc.) • E.g. Gallup Pole • Sample Survey – cont’d • The Focused Survey • Ask only those people who meet certain criteria (e.g. under 18, only female, only first-borns) • Narrows/Focuses the research • Interview • Limited group, more in-depth, face-to-face • Prepared questions • Takes time; hard to collate/summarize the individual answers
Research Methods - cont’d • Experiment • Allows researchers to find connection/correlation between factors • “Control group” and Experimental group”