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A Red Light for Scofflaws

A Red Light for Scofflaws . Language points . let alone : used after a negative statement to indicate that a particular situation is extremely unlikely or impossible , because sth. much less difficult or unusual has never happened. (=never mind, still less)

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A Red Light for Scofflaws

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  1. A Red Light for Scofflaws

  2. Language points let alone: used after a negative statement to indicate that a particular situation is extremely unlikely or impossible , because sth. much less difficult or unusual has never happened. (=never mind, still less) • No one was sure exactly what had happened, let alone how. • She had scarcely ever talked to a policeman, let alone gone out with one.

  3. Language points take liberties with: behave in a bold or impolite way towards • She would never have taken a liberty with anyone. • He was not the sort of man with whom one took liberties. supposedly: allegedly • a robot supposedly capable of understanding spoken commands • a supposedly inferior form of life such as the reptile

  4. Language points ethic: idea or moral belief that influences the behavior, attitudes, and philosophy of life of a group of people (=principle) • the American ‘frontier ethic of expansion and opportunity’ • the Protestant work ethic ethics: moral beliefs and rules about right and wrong • a conscious, rational, scientific code of ethics • the basic ethics which any religion sets forward

  5. Language points a matter of course: If sth. is done as a matter of course, it is done as part of a normal situation and is not regarded as unusual or exceptional. (=automatically) • The father does his share of the housework as a matter of course when at home. abound: contain very large numbers of • Rumors abounded. • Its hills abound with/in streams and waterfalls. (+with/in: =teem with)

  6. Language points exempt from: not affected or bound by (=excused) • These houses are exempt from paying rates. • convert: change into a different form (=transform) • A solar cell takes radiation from the sun and converts it into electricity. • Energy is converted from one form to another.

  7. Language points flurry: a small amount (as of snow or wind) that suddenly appears for a short time and moves in a rushed, swirling way (=whirl) • Snow flurries had been predicted. • Their front runners collided, sending up a flurry of sparks. ordinance: (formal) official rule or order; regulation • In 1972 the city passed an ordinance compelling all outdoor lighting to be switched off at 9:00 p.m.

  8. Language points plague: keep happening and cause a great deal of trouble, difficulty, or suffering • The system is still plagued by technical faults. • He suffered severe back injuries, which plague him to this day. • I don’t know why we have been plagued with such ill luck. • duck out of: avoid doing, esp. by making an excuse (=back out) • It was too late to duck out of going with them.

  9. Language points fester: (a difficult or unpleasant situation, feeling, or thought) grow worse and be characterized by increasing bitterness, anger, and hatred. • His memories festered into hate. • an anger that must find outlet or fester inwardly • hazardous: dangerous, esp. to people’s health or safety

  10. Language points • flout: deliberately disobey or do not follow (a law, an order, or an accepted way of behaving) (=disregard) • Be prepared to flout convention. • Our rulers know now that we’re prepared to flout their laws if forced. • wane: (a condition, attitude, emotion, etc.) become weaker or smaller, often disappearing comp9letely in the end (=lessen, fade) • Her enthusiasm for Harold was beginning to wane. • The bond of friendship has not waned but has survived the passage of time. • be on the wane: diminishing

  11. Language points make a dent in: reduce considerably • The operation had made a major dent in the trade of protected wildlife. brazen: shameless • a brazen whore • a brazen accusation • brazenly: No industry is more brazenly oriented towards quick, easy profits. foretaste: sample • The episode was a foretaste of the bitter struggle that was to come.

  12. Language points stereotype: a fixed general image, characteristic, etc that a lot of people believe to represent a particular type of person or thing • The song perpetuates two racist stereotypes. skirt: go around the edge or outside of • As I walked through the lobby, I had to skirt a group of ladies. • They skirted round a bus.

  13. Language points prospect: possibility, chance, likelihood • There was little prospect of significant military aid. • The prospects for revolution are remote. • someone’s prospects: their chances of being successful in their career, esp. by being promoted quickly to a high position in an organization • I tried to give a rosy picture of his prospects. • Success or failure here would be crucial to his future prospects.

  14. Language points undermine: make the authority less secure, often by indirect methods • Many of them sought to undermine his position. • The landowners resented government measures which undermined their authority. mandate: 1)the authority that a government has to carry out particular policies as a result of winning an election. 2) (formal) a particular task that sb. is instructed to carry out; a job • Peter’s mandate was to find the best available investment.

  15. Language points subvert: destroy the power and influence; undermine • Conflict and division subvert the foundations of society. • The best intentions can be subverted by an overpowering commercial atmosphere. comply: conform with • New vehicles must comply with certain standards. • If you want to run a playgroup you must comply with the conditions laid down by the authorities. compliance: (formal) willingness to do what is required; agreement (+ with) • There are ways of ensuring compliance.

  16. Language points nullify: make ineffective; cancel out; invalidate • This had the effect of nullifying our original advantage. • The whole team’s effectiveness can be nullified. • Each state had the right to nullify the federal government’s law. disquiet: n. & v. a feeling of worry or anxiety (=uneasiness) • Many physicists expressed extreme disquiet about the proposal. • The intensity of his anger disquieted me. • There was a disquieting moment as I got up to return to my office.

  17. Language points unwittingly: unintentionally • I had to be grateful to her for having, however unwittingly, saved my life. terminally: fatally • a hospice (收容所)for the terminally ill

  18. Text II: Language points plead: (formal) give as an excuse; protest • The Government might find it convenient to plead ignorance. • Whenever she invites him to dinner, he pleads a prior engagement. • I pleaded that I fell ill. • incriminate: suggest that someone is the person responsible for a crime • Williams had been forced to incriminate himself in cross-examinations. • incriminating evidence

  19. Text II: Language points honor: If you honor sth. that you have arranged, agreed, or promised, you keep to it and do not change your mind. • The government has solemn commitments and must honor them. • The policy of wage restraint was honored by the union. apt: likely; prone • Babies who are small at birth are apt to grow faster. • I was able to fidget a good deal during a long performance.

  20. Text II: Language points restrain: hold back • She was raising a cautionary finger as if to restrain Morris from speaking. • The young girls had difficulty in restraining themselves from laughter. inclination: a feeling that makes someone act or want to act in a particular way without thinking or reasoning; disposition; tendency • People decide on their aims in life according to their inclinations. • She says her large family happened partly from inclination and partly from chance.

  21. Text II: Language points skeptical: having a lot of doubt about (+ about) deviation: a difference or change in behavior from what people consider to be normal or acceptable; deviance • A crime is a deviation from generally accepted standards of behavior. • deviate: He has not deviated from his view that war can never be justified. in good faith: If you do sth. in good faith, your reasons for doing it are honest and sincere and you do not intend to harm anyone • The two doctors were acting in good faith, the law insisted. • Accusations were made as to the good faith of many involved.

  22. Text II: Language points swindle: deceive in order to get sth., esp. money; fiddle, diddle • I’m sure they swindled you out of that money. • He tried to swindle the railway company. make out: (inf) do reasonably well in work or life • No matter what happens, he’ll always make out. • How are you making out these days? Text II: Language points

  23. Text II: Language points inasmuch: (formal) also spelled in as much. Inasmuch as is used to introduce a clause in which you say sth. that explains the preceding or following statement, or that limits it in some way; insofar as • The outcome of this was important inasmuch as it showed just what human beings were capable of. • His duty is to assist the aggrieved person inasmuch as he is able.

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