Ch. 5 Bone • LT: List the functions of the skeletal system • Name the four main kinds of bones • Identify the anatomical areas of a long bone • ET: Grab a copy of the article at the front. Think about the following questions: • What do bones do? • What do we already know about them?
Functions of Bones • Support – Bones for the internal framework • Protection – Keep soft organs protected (Brain) • Movement – Muscles are attached by tendons to allow body movement • Storage – Stores fat and minerals (Ca+) • Blood cell formation – Red blood cell are made from red bone marrow (Hematopoiesis)
Classification • Long – longer than they are wide • Short – Cube shaped and mostly spongy • Flat – Thin, Flat, and Curved • Irregular – Bones that do not fit the above categories
Diaphysis: Shaft • Periosteum: Membrane connected by Sharpey’s fibers • Epiphyses: Ends • Articular Cartilage (hyaline) • Yellow marrow or medullary cavity: Fat
Classification • Spongy • Compact
The Bone • LT: Today I will.. • Describe briefly the process of bone formation in the fetus • Summarize the events of bone remodeling • Name and describe the various types of fractures • ET: Define the following terms • Ossification • Osteoblast (bone + germinate) • Osteoclast (bone + broken) • Osteocyte
Types of Bone Tissue Compact (wall of the diaphysis) Spongy (cancellous, epiphysis) - red marrow
Inside the Long Bone Medullary Cavity – hollow chamber filled with bone marrow Red Marrow (blood) Yellow Marrow (fat) Endosteum – lining of the medullary
Microscopic Structure – Write this down MATRIX - where the bone cells live OSTEOCYTES - mature bone cells, enclosed in tiny chambers called LACUNAE OSTEOCYTES form rings (LAMELLAE) around a HAVERSIAN CANAL which houses blood vessels Osteocytes are linked by CANALICULI Haversian Canals are linked by VOLKMAN's CANALS
Osteocytes Haversian Canal Volkmann’s Canal
Test Yourself Find the... Haversian Canal Volkman's Canal Lamellae Spongy Bone Compact Bone
Quiz Time! • Get with a partner or group and go to Kahoot.it No Notes! Appropriate names only!
Chicken Cemetery • FQ: What makes up the bone matrix? • List a few things you already know about the bone cell matrix (2 min.)
Bone Remodeling and Classification • On your blaster/claster wheel, use the key and label the types of cells at each numbered step (wedge of the wheel) • Cut out your top wheel and attach it to the bottom wheel • Start at step one, and in your own words describe what is happening at each step
Bone Remodeling - Explained • Get your skin model from the back – keep it or throw it away after you leave this room • Take out your blaster/claster wheel and your list of descriptions for each step • Compare your list with two other people from different groups (5 min.)
Ossification – Bone formation • Osteoblast cover a cartilage model of the bone with bone matrix • The matrix will absorb mineral salts and harden and be come compact bone • Remodeling
Get You Chicken Bones • Complete the analysis questions • What is being lost from the bone?
Forensic Science • Learning objective: • To learn and become a forensic scientist • Apply your forensic knowledge and identify bones at a crime scene
Bone Fractures • Agenda • Look at bone fractures • Go over the wound healing process
8 Types of fractures • Simple • Compound • Comminuted • Compression • Depression • Impacted • Spiral • Greenstick
Healing A Bone Fracture • Hematoma – blood filled swelling • Fibrocartilage Callus – various cells create cartilage, bone matrix, and collagen fibers • Bony Callus – osteoblast and osteoclast replace the fibrous callus with spongy bone • Bone remodeling
Gross Anatomy of Bones Create detailed, labeled drawing of the each different specimen (be careful there are duplicates) Try and see as much of the long bone anatomy as possible and identify the different parts Your drawing will be turned in at the end of the period