Pre-Class –Read Page 79-80 • What good was the backbone of the Trans-Saharan Trade? • What were the effects of this trade?
Trans-SaharaN Trade Salt for Gold
Trans-Saharan Trade on sheet • Trade across the Sahara • Salt for Gold • Effect Rise of West African Kingdoms and Diffusion
Desertification:Land is turned to desert. The Sahara is still growing. on sheet
The Nile’s regular flooding produced fertile land. This led to farming.
Some adapted to the desert: Pastoralists (nomadic herders) learned to domesticate animals, but did not settle in villages. on sheet
The Sahara separated the north from the south and two cultures developed.
The introduction of the camel to the West-Africans around 750 AD. They were practically built for Saharan trade and travel, and were vastly superior to the horse in their forte. They could carry heavy loads for seemingly endless distances, were able to keep their footing on sandy terrain and also could go for long periods of time without water.
Caravan: group of desert merchants, especially in northern Africa and Asia, crossing the desert together for safety, usually with a train of camels on sheet
Mediterranean-maintained contact with Middle East and Europe Traded: Mediterranean food manufactured products and iron
2. Sahara:Pastoralist culture – Traded salt for gold to the north and southSalt Reading
Saharan salt is either mined as at Taoudenni or evaporated from salt pans as at Taggiddan n' Tessoum. The reddish earth containing salt is stirred up with water in large pans. As the earth settles the water is scooped off into smaller pans where it is evaporated leaving salt. The bottom photograph shows the salt caravan which crossed the Erg du Ténéré from Bilma to Agadez.
Rise of West AfricanKingdoms (chart): • Ghana • Mali • Songhai
Ghana • West Africa – 500AD • Founded by Soninke • Ruler: King of the Gold • Title: ghana meaning War Chief • Governed through princes and officials • Powerful army- iron tipped spears • paid a tax for safety • Gold for Salt trade (Bebers) • Decline: Almoravids attacked and broke into smaller states (1076-1235)