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What are Stakeholders and How to manage them?

What are Stakeholders and How to manage them?

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What are Stakeholders and How to manage them?

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  1. What are Stakeholders and How to manage them?

    جناب استاد نجفی توانا احسان محرمی
  2. ProductionView ManagerialView StakeholderView 0 Evolution of the Business Enterprise
  3. 0 Production and Managerial Views of the Firm
  4. Stakeholders a definition “A stakeholder is any individual or group who can affect or is affected by the actions decisions, policies and practices, or goals of the organisation” Freeman 1984 “Stakeholders are all the people and groups affected by, or that can affect, an organisation’s decisions, policies and operations.” Post Lawrence and Weber 1999
  5. What are Stakeholders? Stakeholders are groups of people who have an interest in a business organisation They can be seen as being either external to the organisation, or internal Internal stakeholders are those who are ‘members’ of the business organisation Owners and shareholders Managers Staff and employees External stakeholders are not part of the firm
  6. Owners (I) Shareholders (I) Managers (I) Staff or employees (I) Customers (E) Suppliers (E) Community (E) Government (E) I = Internal E = External Types of Stakeholder Some groups can be both internal and external stakeholders Such as staff or shareholders who are also local residents
  7. Business Stakeholder Groups Suppliers Customers Special-InterestGroups Community Media Competitors Society Stockholders GeneralPublic Employees 0 Who Are Business Stakeholders?
  8. An Interest A Right Ownership 0 Origins of the Stakeholder Concept Stake An interest or a share in an undertaking and can be categorized as: Legal Right Moral Right
  9. Characteristics of Stakeholders 1. Owners and Shareholders The number of owners and the roles they carry out differ according to the size of the firm In small businesses there may be only one owner (sole trader) or perhaps a small number of partners (partnership) In large firms there are often thousands of shareholders, who each own a small part of the business
  10. organise make decisions plan control are accountable to the owner(s) 2. Managers
  11. 3. Employees or Staff A business needs staff or employees to carry out its activities Employees agree to work a certain number of hours in return for a wage or salary Pay levels vary with skills, qualifications, age, location, types of work and industry and other factors
  12. 4. Customers Customers buy the goods or services produced by firms They may be individuals or other businesses Firms must understand and meet the needs of their ustomers, otherwise they will fail to make a profit or, indeed, survive
  13. 5. Suppliers Firms get the resources they need to produce goods and services from suppliers Businesses should have effective relationships with their suppliers in order to get quality resources at reasonable prices This is a two-way process, as suppliers depend on the firms they supply
  14. 6. Community Firms and the communities they exist in are also in a two-way relationship The local community may often provide many of the firm’s staff and customers The business often supplies goods and services vital to the local area But at times the community can feel aggrieved by some aspects of what a firm does
  15. 7. Government Economic policies affect firms’ costs (through taxation and interest rates) Legislation regulates what business can do in areas such as the environment and occupational safety and health Successful firms are good for governments as they create wealth and employment
  16. Five Major Questions Who are our stakeholders? What is their stake? What responsibilities do we have to them? What strategies, actions or decisions should we take to best deal with those responsibilities? Carroll 1991
  17. Factors to consider in Stakeholder Management Classification Primary Secondary Dynamic in nature Power Interdependence Conflict
  18. Mapping Hi Influence on Project Lo Lo Hi Engagement with Project
  19. Tips for Stakeholder Management Make sure there is a process where you can assess priorities between the project needs and the stakeholder’s demands / requests Look for common ground with your stakeholders Build partnerships such that everyone can benefit Be flexible, very few things are absolutely set in concrete, power of lateral thinking Sometimes you just cannot agree – an ability to disagree without damaging relationships is a major asset
  20. Stakeholder Analysis - Project Management Tools from
  21. Stakeholders analysis Step 1 – Identify Your Stakeholders The first step in your Stakeholder Analysis is to brainstorm  who your stakeholders are. As part of this, think of all the people who are affected by your work, who have influence or power over it, or have an interest in its successful or unsuccessful conclusion.
  22. قدم اول: شناخت ذینفعان اولین قدم در تجزیه و تحلیل ذینفعان شناخت ذینفعان از طریق توفان مغزی است. به عنوان بخشی از این کار به تمام افرادی که از کار شما تاثیر می پذیرند، به کسانیکه بر کار شما تاثیر می گذارند و یا به موفقیت یا شکست آن علاقه مند هستند فکر کنید.
  23. The table below shows some of the people who might be stakeholders in your job or in your projects: Your boss Shareholders Government Senior executives Alliance partners Trades associations Your coworkers Suppliers The press Your team Lenders Interest groups Customers Analysts The public Prospective customers Future recruits The community Your family
  24. در جدول زیر برخی از افرادی که میتوانند در پروژه شما ذینفع باشند نشان داده شدهاند:
  25. Step 2 – Prioritize Your Stakeholders You may now have a long list of people and organizations that are affected by your work. Some of these may have the power either to block or advance. Some may be interested in what you are doing, others may not care. Map out your stakeholders on a Power/Interest Grid on our free template as shown in figure 1, and classify them by their power over your work and by their interest in your work.
  26. قدم دوم: اولویت بندی ذینفعان احتمالا هم اکنون یک لیست بلند از افراد و سازمانهایی دارند که تحت تاثیر کار شما قرار گرفته اند. برخی از این افراد میتوانند قدرت لازم برای پیشرفت و یا توقف شما را داشته باشند. برخی میتوانند به آنچه شما انجام می دهید علاقه مند باشند و برخی دیگر اهمیتی به آن ندهند. ذینفعان را بر روی ماتریس قدرت/رغبت همانگونه که در شکل 1 نشان داده شده ترسیم کرده و آنها را بر اساس میزان تاثیر گذاری و رغبتی که به کار شما دارند تقسیم بندی کنید.
  27. For example Your boss is likely to have high power and influence over your projects and high interest. Your family may have high interest, but are unlikely to have power over it.
  28. High power, interested people: these are the people you must fully engage and make the greatest efforts to satisfy. High power, less interested people: put enough work in with these people to keep them satisfied, but not so much that they become bored with your message. Low power, interested people: keep these people adequately informed, and talk to them to ensure that no major issues are arising. These people can often be very helpful with the detail of your project. Low power, less interested people: again, monitor these people, but do not bore them with excessive communication.
  29. موقعیت افراد بر روی ماتریس نشان دهنده اقدامی است که باید برای آنها انجام دهید: افراد با قدرت و رغبت زیاد: این افراد کسانی هستند که باید کاملا با آنها درگیر شوید و بیشترین تلاش برای راضی نگهداشتن آنها را انجام دهید. افراد با قدرت زیاد و رغبت و علاقه کم: تلاش کافی برای راضی نگهداشتن این افراد را بکنید ولی نه آنقدر که از دست شما خسته شوند. افراد با قدرت کم ولی علاقه مند: این افراد را مطلع از کار نگه دارید و برای اطمینان از اینکه مسئله مهمی اتفاق نیافتد با آنها صحبت کنید. این افراد در مورد جزئیات پروژه شما بسیار کمک کننده خواهند بود. افراد با قدرت و علاقه مندی کم: این افراد را تحت نظر داشته باشید ولی با ارتباطات بسیار زیاد آنها را خسته نکنید.
  30. Step 3 – Understand Your Key Stakeholders What financial or emotional interest do they have in the outcome of your work? Is it positive or negative? What motivates them most of all? What information do they want from you? How do they want to receive information from you? What is the best way of communicating your message to them? What is their current opinion of your work? Is it based on good information? Who influences their opinions generally, and who influences their opinion of you? Do some of these influencers therefore become important stakeholders in their own right? If they are not likely to be positive, what will win them around to support your project? If you don't think you will be able to win them around, how will you manage their opposition? Who else might be influenced by their opinions? Do these people become stakeholders in their own right?
  31. قدم سوم: شناخت ذینفعان کلیدی در برابر خروجی کارهای شما چه علایق مالی و احساسی دارند؟ منفی است یا مثبت؟ بیشتر از همه چه چیزی به آنها انگیزه میدهد؟ آنها چه اطلاعاتی از شما می خواهند؟ چگونه می خواهند اطلاعات را دریافت کنند؟ بهترین راه ارسال اطلاعات به آنها چیست؟ نظر فعلی آنها در مورد پروژه شما چیست؟ آیا این نظر بر اساس اطلاعات صحیح میباشد؟ چه کسی بر روی نظرات کلی آنها تاثیر می گذارد؟ چه کسی بر روی نظرات آنها در مورد شما تاثیر می گذارد؟ آیا این تاثیرگذاران خود جزء ذینفعان هستند؟ اگر در مورد شما مثبت نیستند چه چیزی میتواند جلب حمایت آنان را بکند؟ اگر فکر می کنید نمیتوانید حمایت آنها را جلب کنید چگونه میتوانید نظرات مخالف آنها را مدیریت کنید؟ چه کسانی ممکن است تحت تاثیر نظرات آنها قرار بگیرند؟ آیا این افراد ذینبفع هستند؟
  32. مزایای تحلیل ذینفعان شما می توانید از نظرات ذینفعان قدرتمند برای شکل دادن به پروژه خود در مراحل اولیه استفاه کنید. اینکار نه تنها باعث افزایش احتمال حمایت آنها از شما می شود بلکه نظرات آنها می تواند موجب بهبود کیفیت پروژه شما شود. برخورداری از حمایت ذینفعان قدرتمند می تواند به شما برای دستیابی به منابع بیشتر کمک کند و این موضوع می تواند باعث افزایش احتمال موفقیت پروژه های شما شود. با ارتباطات به موقع و متناوب با ذینفعان، به این اطمینان می رسید که آنها درک کاملی از آنچه شما در حال انجام آن هستید و منافعی که پروژه شما به دنبال دارد به دست آورده اند و این به این معنی است که آنها قادر خواهند بود از شما به طور فعالانه در زمان مورد نیاز حمایت نمایند. شما می توانید اقدامات دیگران در عکس العمل به پروژه خود را پیش بینی کرده و در برنامه خود اقداماتی بگنجانید که پشتیبانی ایشان را به دنبال داشته باشد.
  33. Stakeholders and their objectives
  34. Stakeholders and their objectives
  35. Stakeholders and their objectives
  36. Meeting the Needs of Stakeholders BTEC Business Stakeholder Analysis - Project Management Tools from