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Reporting and Analyzing Inventory

Reporting and Analyzing Inventory

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Reporting and Analyzing Inventory

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  1. Reporting and Analyzing Inventory Financial Accounting, Fifth Edition

  2. Reporting and Analyzing Inventory Classifying Inventory Determining Inventory Quantities Inventory Costing Analysis of Inventory Finished goods Work in process Raw materials Taking a physical inventory Determining ownership of goods Specific identification Cost flow assumptions Financial statement and tax effects Consistent use Lower-of-cost-or-market Inventory turnover ratio LIFO reserve

  3. Classifying Inventory Manufacturing Company Merchandising Company • One Classification: • Merchandise Inventory • Three Classifications: • Raw Materials • Work in Process • Finished Goods Regardless of the classification, companies report all inventories under Current Assets on the balance sheet.

  4. Determining Inventory Quantities Physical Inventory taken for two reasons: • Perpetual System • Check accuracy of inventory records. • Determine amount of inventory lost (wasted raw materials, shoplifting, or employee theft). • Periodic System • Determine the inventory on hand • Determine the cost of goods sold for the period. SO 1 Describe the steps in determining inventory quantities.

  5. Determining Inventory Quantities Determining Ownership of Goods • Goods in Transit • Can be purchased goods not yet received. • Can also be sold goods not yet delivered. • Main issue is “who has legal title”? • This is determined by contract terms SO 1 Describe the steps in determining inventory quantities.

  6. Determining Inventory Quantities Determining Ownership of Goods Consigned Goods Goods held for sale by one party although ownership of the goods is retained by another party. SO 1 Describe the steps in determining inventory quantities.

  7. Inventory Costing: • Identification of physical goods sold is not always the best determinant of cost. • Example: three identical TV sets bought for three different prices. • Who cares which was sold first?

  8. Inventory Costing Illustration:Assume that Crivitz TV Company purchases three identical 46-inch TVs on different dates at costs of $700, $750, and $800. During the year Crivitz sold two sets at $1,200 each. These facts are summarized below. Illustration 6-2 SO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories and apply the inventory cost flow methods under a periodic inventory system.

  9. Inventory Costing “Specific Identification” If Crivitz sold the TVs it purchased on February 3 and May 22, then its cost of goods sold is $1,500 ($700 + $800), and its ending inventory is $750. Illustration 6-3 SO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories and apply the inventory cost flow methods under a periodic inventory system.

  10. Inventory Costing Specific Identification Method • An actual physical flow costing method in which items still in inventory are specifically costed to arrive at the total cost of the ending inventory. • Practice is relatively rare. • Most companies make assumptions (Cost Flow Assumptions) about which units were sold. SO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories and apply the inventory cost flow methods under a periodic inventory system.

  11. Inventory Costing – Cost Flow Assumptions Illustration: Data for Houston Electronics’ Astro condensers. Illustration 6-4 (Beginning Inventory + Purchases) - Ending Inventory = Cost of Goods Sold SO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories and apply the inventory cost flow methods under a periodic inventory system.

  12. Inventory Costing – Cost Flow Assumptions “First-In-First-Out (FIFO)” • Earliest goods purchased are first to be sold. • Often parallels actual physical flow of merchandise. • Generally good business practice to sell oldest units first. SO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories and apply the inventory cost flow methods under a periodic inventory system.

  13. Inventory Costing – Cost Flow Assumptions “First-In-First-Out (FIFO)” Illustration 6-5 Solution on notes page SO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories and apply the inventory cost flow methods under a periodic inventory system.

  14. Inventory Costing – Cost Flow Assumptions “First-In-First-Out (FIFO)” Illustration 6-5 SO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories and apply the inventory cost flow methods under a periodic inventory system.

  15. Inventory Costing – Cost Flow Assumptions “Last-In-First-Out (LIFO)” • Latest goods purchased are first to be sold. • Seldom coincides with actual physical flow of merchandise. • Exceptions include goods stored in piles, such as coal or hay. SO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories and apply the inventory cost flow methods under a periodic inventory system.

  16. Inventory Costing – Cost Flow Assumptions “Last-In-First-Out (LIFO)” Illustration 6-7 Solution on notes page SO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories and apply the inventory cost flow methods under a periodic inventory system.

  17. Inventory Costing – Cost Flow Assumptions “Last-In-First-Out (LIFO)” Illustration 6-7 SO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories and apply the inventory cost flow methods under a periodic inventory system.

  18. Inventory Costing – Cost Flow Assumptions “Average Cost” • Allocates cost of goods available for sale on the basis of weighted average unit costincurred. • Assumes goods are similar in nature. • Applies weighted average unit cost to the units on hand to determine cost of the ending inventory. SO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories and apply the inventory cost flow methods under a periodic inventory system.

  19. Inventory Costing – Cost Flow Assumptions “Average Cost” Illustration 6-10 Solution on notes page SO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories and apply the inventory cost flow methods under a periodic inventory system.

  20. Inventory Costing – Cost Flow Assumptions ”Average Cost” Illustration 6-10 SO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories and apply the inventory cost flow methods under a periodic inventory system.

  21. Inventory Costing – Cost Flow Assumptions Comparative Financial Statement Summary FIFO Average LIFO Sales $9,000 $9,000 $9,000 Cost of goods sold 6,200 6,600 7,000 Gross profit 2,800 2,400 2,000 Admin. & selling expense 330 330 330 Income before taxes 2,470 2,070 1,670 Income tax expense 140 120 110 Net income $2,330 $1,950 $1,560 Inventory balance $5,800 $5,400 $5,000 LO 3 Explain the financial statement and tax effects of each of the inventory cost flow assumptions.

  22. Inventory Costing – Cost Flow Assumptions In Period of Rising Prices, FIFO Reports: FIFO Average LIFO Sales $9,000 $9,000 $9,000 Cost of goods sold 6,200 6,600 7,000 Gross profit 2,800 2,400 2,000 Admin. & selling expense 330 330 330 Income before taxes 2,470 2,070 1,670 Income tax expense 140 120 110 Net income $2,330 $1,950 $1,560 Inventory balance $5,800 $5,400 $5,000 Lowest Highest LO 3 Explain the financial statement and tax effects of each of the inventory cost flow assumptions.

  23. Inventory Costing – Cost Flow Assumptions In Period of Rising Prices, LIFO Reports: FIFO Average LIFO Sales $9,000 $9,000 $9,000 Cost of goods sold 6,200 6,600 7,000 Gross profit 2,800 2,400 2,000 Admin. & selling expense 330 330 330 Income before taxes 2,470 2,070 1,670 Income tax expense 140 120 110 Net income $2,330 $1,950 $1,560 Inventory balance $5,800 $5,400 $5,000 Highest Lowest LO 3 Explain the financial statement and tax effects of each of the inventory cost flow assumptions.

  24. Inventory Costing Using Cost Flow Methods Consistently • Method should be used consistently, enhances comparability. • Although consistency is preferred, a company may change its inventory costing method. Illustration 6-14 Disclosure of change in cost flow method LO 3 Explain the financial statement and tax effects of each of the inventory cost flow assumptions.

  25. Inventory Costing Lower-of-Cost-or-Market • When the value of inventory is lower than its cost • Companies can “write down” the inventory to its market value in the period in which the price decline occurs. • Market value = Replacement Cost • Example of conservatism. SO 4 Explain the lower-of-cost-or-market basis of accounting for inventories.

  26. Inventory Costing Lower-of-Cost-or-Market Illustration: Assume that Ken Tuckie TV has the following lines of merchandise with costs and market values as indicated. $ 55,000 45,000 45,000 12,800 $157,800 SO 4 Explain the lower-of-cost-or-market basis of accounting for inventories.

  27. Analysis of Inventory Analysis of Inventory • Inventory management is a double-edged sword • High Inventory Levels - may incur high carrying costs (e.g., investment, storage, insurance, obsolescence, and damage). • Low Inventory Levels – may lead to stockouts and lost sales. SO 5 Compute and interpret the inventory turnover ratio.

  28. Analysis of Inventory Inventory turnovermeasures the number of times on average the inventory is sold during the period. Cost of Goods Sold Inventory Turnover = Average Inventory Days in inventory measures the average number of days inventory is held. Days in Year (365) Days in Inventory = Inventory Turnover SO 5 Compute and interpret the inventory turnover ratio.

  29. Analysis of Inventory Illustration:The following data are available for Wal-Mart. Inventory Turnover 2007 $264,152 8.1 times = = (33,685 + 31,910) / 2 Days in inventory 2007 365 Days 45.1 Days = = 8.1 SO 5 Compute and interpret the inventory turnover ratio.

  30. Analysis of Inventory Illustration:The following data are available for Wal-Mart. Inventory Turnover 2006 $237,649 7.7 times = = (31,910 + 29,419) / 2 Days in inventory 2006 365 Days 47.4 Days = = 7.7 SO 5 Compute and interpret the inventory turnover ratio.

  31. Analysis of Inventory Analysts’ Adjustments for LIFO Reserve Companies using LIFO are required to report the amount that inventory would increase (or occasionally decrease) if the company had instead been using FIFO. This amount is referred to as the LIFO reserve. Illustration 6-17 SO 6 Describe the LIFO reserve and explain its importance for comparing results of different companies.

  32. Analysis of Inventory Analysts’ Adjustments for LIFO Reserve The LIFO reserve can have a significant effect on ratios analysts commonly use. Illustration 6-19 SO 6 Describe the LIFO reserve and explain its importance for comparing results of different companies.

  33. Inventory Errors Appendix 6B • Common Cause: • Failure to count or price inventory correctly. • Not properly recognizing the transfer of legal title to goods in transit. • Errors affect both the income statement and balance sheet. SO 8 Indicate the effects of inventory errors on the financial statements.

  34. Inventory Errors Income Statement Effects Inventory errors affect the computation of cost of goods sold and net income. Illustration 6-B1 Illustration 6-B2 SO 8 Indicate the effects of inventory errors on the financial statements.

  35. Inventory Errors Income Statement Effects • Inventory errors affect the computation of cost of goods sold and net income in two periods. • An error in ending inventory of the current period will have a reverse effect on net income of the next accounting period. • Over the two years, the total net income is correct because the errors offset each other. • The ending inventory depends entirely on the accuracy of taking and costing the inventory. SO 8 Indicate the effects of inventory errors on the financial statements.

  36. Inventory Errors Illustration 6-B3 Combined income for 2-year period is correct. $3,000 Net Income overstated ($3,000) Net Income understated SO 8 Indicate the effects of inventory errors on the financial statements.

  37. Inventory Errors Balance Sheet Effects Effect of inventory errors on the balance sheet is determined by using the basic accounting equation:. Illustration 6-B1 Illustration 6-B4 SO 8 Indicate the effects of inventory errors on the financial statements.