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Alkanes and Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Alkanes and Aromatic Hydrocarbons

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Alkanes and Aromatic Hydrocarbons

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  1. Alkanes and Aromatic Hydrocarbons Organic Compounds Bonding in Hydrocarbons Naming Alkanes Properties of Alkanes Timberlake LecturePLUS

  2. “The most important hypothesis in all of biology…is that everything that animals do, atoms do. In other words, there is nothing that living things do that cannot be understood from the point of view that they are made of atoms acting according to the laws of physics.” Richard Feynman (1918-1988) Timberlake LecturePLUS

  3. Organic Compounds • Contain carbon • Have covalent bonds • Have low melting points • Have low boiling points • Burn in air (oxygen) • Are soluble in nonpolar solvents • Form large molecules Timberlake LecturePLUS

  4. Alkanes • Contain C and H only • Contain single bonds C-C • Have 4 bonds to every carbon (C) atom • Are nonpolar Timberlake LecturePLUS

  5. Complete Structural Formulas Show the bonds between each of the atoms H H   H  C  H H C H   H H CH4 , methane Timberlake LecturePLUS

  6. More Alkanes H H Condensed Structural Formulas H C C H CH3 CH3 H H Ethane H H H H C C C H CH3 CH2 CH3 H H H Propane Timberlake LecturePLUS

  7. IUPAC Names Name # carbons Structural Formula Methane 1 CH4 Ethane 2 CH3CH3 Propane 3 CH3CH2CH3 Butane 4 CH3CH2CH2CH3 Pentane 5 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 Timberlake LecturePLUS

  8. IUPAC NAMES Name # carbons Structural Formula Hexane 6 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 Heptane 7 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 Octane 8 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 Nonane 9 CH3 CH2 CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 Decane 10 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 Timberlake LecturePLUS

  9. Learning Check Alk1 A. What is the condensed formula for H H H H H C C C C H H H H H B. What is its molecular formula? C. What is its name? Timberlake LecturePLUS

  10. Solution Alk1 A. CH3CH2CH2CH3 B. C4H10 C. butane Timberlake LecturePLUS

  11. Reactions of Alkanes Combustion alkane + O2 CO2 + H2O + heat Timberlake LecturePLUS

  12. Combustion In the Cell Metabolic oxidation is combustion C6H12 O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + heat glucose Timberlake LecturePLUS

  13. Learning Check Alk2 Complete the combustion reaction for C3H8 + O2 + Balance your equation Timberlake LecturePLUS

  14. Solution Alk2 Step 1 C3H8 + O2 CO2 + H2O Step 2 C3H8 + O2 3 CO2 + 4 H2O Step 3 C3H8 + 5 O2 3 CO2 + 4 H2O Timberlake LecturePLUS

  15. Learning Check Alk3 Complete and balance the reaction for the complete combustion of C7H16 Timberlake LecturePLUS

  16. Solution Alk3 Step 1 C7H16 + O2 CO2 + H2O Step 2 C7H16 + O2 7 CO2 + 8 H2O Step 3 C7H16 + 11 O2 7 CO2 + 8 H2O Timberlake LecturePLUS