Most criticisms of advertising focus on the deceptive aspects of modern advertising. • Nevertheless, even if advertising as a whole is not manipulative.
There are clearly some advertisements that are intended to manipulate. • Such advertisements do clearly violate the consumer's right to be treated as a free and equal rational being.
Deceptive advertising • Deceptive advertising takes many forms. • The "bait and switch," untrue paid testimonials, or simulating brand names are all forms of deception. • There is no controversy over whether or not deceptive advertising is immoral: it clearly is. • The problem is to understand how advertising becomes deceptive.
All communication involves three things: • The author or originator of the message, the medium that carries the message, and the audience who receives it. • Deception involves three necessary conditions in the author:
The author must intend to have the audience believe something false. • The author must know it to be false. • The author must knowingly do something to bring about this false belief.
Professional Advertising • Daniel Starch (1927) “ Principles of Advertising”, Criteria for successful Ad : must be Seen; Read; Believed; Remembered; Acted upon. • Objection to Starch: Traditional Approach Concrete Advertising. • No ideas about Abstract Advertising. • Based on market research on public’s likes and dislikes.
Professional Advertising • Not benefited by Freud’s in-depth examination of people’s mind. (Psychoanalysis) • Engage in much more in-depth psychological testing of consumers.
Modern Advertising • Vance Packard “The Hidden Persuaders” an attack on those advertisements that use ‘in-depth’ research on human motivation & behavior. • Ad based on Market Research, people are asked what their preferences are. • It assumes that people know what they want and that they essentially behave rationally.