COMPETITIVE MANUFACTURING MANAGEMENT "REFRAMING FOOD MANUFACTURING" Jean-Pierre Wahli
Uma dupla mudança ABORDAGEM NOVA M O D O D E P E N S A R NOVA ABORDAGEM ABORDAGEM ATUAL REALIDADE NOVA REALIDADE ATUAL Dupla Mudança de Paradigmas REALIDADE NOVA NATUREZA DA REALIDADE MUDANDO PARADIGMAS ABORDAGEM ATUAL REALIDADE ATUAL
AGE FALA SENTE PENSA
PRINCIPAIS REFERÊNCIAS Teoria da Mudança Watzlawick Gen. System Theory Von Bertalanffy Cibernética Wiener Teoria dos Grupos Galois Teoria dos Tipos Lógicos Russel & Whitehead
Estrutura: • A estrutura hierárquica tradicional substituída por:- Estrutura auto-adaptável em 3 níveis lógicos- Níveis de supervisão deixam de existir • Pessoas: • Altamente comprometidas com a empresa e com a qualidade de seu trabalho- Polivalentes, continuamente treinadas, atuam de maneira independente e trabalham em grupos autônomos - Comportam-se como cidadãos da empresa • Processos: • - Profundamente compreendidos e totalmente sob controle- Não há interrupções no processo produtivo- Praticamente não existem desvios de qualidade
Qualidade: • O objetivo é a consistência da qualidade - Qualidade dos processos - Ausência de laboratório para produtos acabados e matérias primas • Custos: • Reduzidos em valores muito além das economias produzidas pelas mudanças estruturais - Melhoria Contínua é um processo orgânico • Fornecedores: • Integrados profundamente com a empresa- Muitos tornam-se parceiros dos negócios- Sistema QA devidamente certificado, permitindo entregas JIT, sem riscos
? Meio Ambiente: • - Plena consciência das economias para a empresa e benefícios para o meio ambiente, com a eliminação de desperdícios e poluição • Know-how: • Crescimento e competitividade baseados no aprendizado e no conhecimento • - “Learning faster than the competition is the only sustainable competitive advantage”
E PUR, SI MUOVE… • Este modelo foi implantado em 27 fábricas no Brasil • Considerado “best in class” em todos os exercícios de benchmarking envolvendo as fábricas do Grupo no mundo • Transformou-se em modelo a ser seguido dentro das fábricas do Grupo
CYBERNETICS • The study of communication and control in living systems • Aimed at the development of thinking machines • Used animals and humans as a model A multi-disciplinary team: physicists, engineers biologists, physiologists, neurologists pedagogues, psychiatrists, anthropologists … Created the concept of FEEDBACK which enables to deal with unpredictable events
CYBERNETICS • The 2nd industrial revolution (the information age) with:- Automation - Information technology - Robotisation • Contributed to the evolution of:- Biology - Pedagogy - Neurology - Psychiatry - Etc • Removed the barrier between human sciences and exact sciences
CHANGE THEORY • 2 basic questions in a change process: • Why does the undesirable situation persist? • What is required to change it?
Ideas Concepts paradigm ORGANIZATION OF THINGS Numbers Objects Ideas Concepts Events Etc.
GROUPS Follow the 4 properties of Group Theory Members are all alike in one commoncharacteristicA combination rule between the members Basic axiom: The outcome of the combination of two or moregroup members is itself a member of the group 3 + 0 = 3 4 x 1 = 4 Other properties: associative neutral (identity) member !opposite (reciprocal) member 3 + 7 = 10 3 x 7 = 21 7 + (-7) = 0 The rule is itself an attribute of the group
GROUP THEORY: CONCLUSION • Illustrates changes within a system that itself remains invariant • The perception of change or persistence depends on the position of the observer • The paradox:"Plus çà change, plus c’est la même chose! ”
Closed mechanical systems with independent parts Y = f (x1, x2, x3, x4, …) SYSTEMS THEORY Charateristics:- Closed systems- Independent functioning of the parts- Whole =∑ Parts Principle:- Linearsystems- Understandsable with classical mathematic System dysfonction:- Entropy increases
Open living systems with interdepent parts x1 Y = f x2 x4 x3 SYSTEMS THEORY Characteristic:- Parts are in interaction Whole ≠∑ Parts Principle:- Non-linear information bonded systems- Statistical approach (probabilities)- Positive metabolism = Negentropy Dysfunction: - Counter-intuitiveness
I=-S SYSTEMS THEORY Information • Principle of Cybernetics in living systems: • The content of what is exchanged with the outer world as:- one adjusts to it- one makes our adjustment felt upon it • Not subject to the law of conservation Not lost by sharing it with others • Entropy is the measure of disorganisationInformation is the measure of organisation
SYSTEMS THEORY Counter-intuitiveness • Properties of complex systems: • Cause & effect separated in time and space • Cause and effect can replace each other • Multiple effects (order of importance shifts in time) • Removing causes does not remove effects • System destabilized if parts change importance • Turns solutions into problems by increasing disorder,thus entropy • From a Predator/Preymodel to Competition one
x1 Organization are non-linear systems Y = f x2 x4 x3 Y = f (x1, x2, x3, x4, …) Representations or models are linear systems SYSTEMS THEORYThe nod of the question • Representations/models only valid in a stable environment! • In an unstable environment, using the model for change :- Complex systems display counter-intuitive effects!- Change to maintain the equilibrium of system is a constant- Internal conflicts & disorder: "entropy" increases • The paradox:"It was better when we were worse! ”
Problem is: Not the impossibilty of the task, but the attempted solutionsThe result of a self-imposed condition Solution found by:Assumptions about the dotsAt the next upper logical levelA change from a set of premises to another of the same logical type Change is only possible at that level It is the logical way out of the system Pawns of a game x player
Type 1 Attribute 2nd order/level Type 0 Object 1st order/level ORGANIZATION OF THE THINGS
Type 2 Property of the attribute 3rdorder/level Light Type 1 Attribute 2nd order/level Yellow Type 0 Object 1st order/level Disc THE THEORY OF LOGICAL TYPES
THE THEORY OF LOGICAL TYPES • Purpose: • To avoid paradoxes of the Group Theory when analysing complex systems • Focuses on: • the relationship between members & class • the metamorphosis in shifts from one logical level to the next higher • Axiom: • "Whatever involves all of a collection must not be one of the collection"
THE THEORY OF LOGICAL TYPES • To avoid paradox engendering situations: • Logical levels to be kept strictly apart • Members and class shall not be mixed up • The next higher logical level contains all the attributes (properties) of the members • Going to the next higher logical allows to exchange attributes of a same logical type
CHANGE THEORY Two types of changes: • “First order change”Occurs within a given system which itself remains unchanged in its nature • “Second order change”The otherwhose occurrence changes the nature of the system itself
CHANGE THEORY First order change Follows the properties of the Group Theory • Based on « logic » & common senseLooks safe, pragmatic, reassuringSeeks solutions within the systemIt is the domain of the obviousThe system remains invariant The paradox: "Plus çà change, plus c'est la même chose…” "It was better, when we were worth!”
CHANGE THEORY Second order change Based on the theory of Logical Types • Applies to 1st order solution It is a discontinuity, a logical jumpAlways involves the upper logical levelThe logical way to think "out of the box"Deals with the effects and not their causes Asks the question what? and not why?Puts a situation in another frame / context • System to be kept flexible (self-adaptation)
KeepItSimple,Stupid Keep ItSimple,Smart COMPARING BOTH TYPES OF CHANGES KISSapproach: Both types of changes are Compatible &Complementary
Internal rule: Multiplication Neutral element:1 Composition with n :n . 1 = n 2nd order change Internal rule:Addition Neutral element: 0 ≠ 1 Composition with n :n + 1 System: Positive and negative integers, including zero.
2nd ORDER CHANGE AVOIDING PROBLEMS CREATING OPPORTUNITIES Wholes are structurally divisible but functionally indivisible SYSTEMIC APPROACH INTERDEPENDENT VARIABLES Deals with the interactions between the parts, the parts with the whole and its environment ∑ parts = nonsense (non-linearity) INTERACTIVE INQUIRY Macromanaging interaction (power to do) Understanding the system 1nd ORDER CHANGE CREATING PROBLEMS MISSING OPPORTUNITIES Reduces complex wholes to simple ones Deals with the variables separately, aggregate theunderstanding of the parts into understanding of the whole ∑ optimised parts = optimised whole Micromanagingaction (power over) Knowledge of how the system works NON LINEAR COMPLEX SYSTEM THE DUAL PARADIGM SHIFT N A T U R E O F I N Q U I R Y ANALYTICAL APPROACH INDEPENDENT VARIABLES DUAL SHIFT OF PARADIGM LINEAR SYSTEM NATURE OF ORGANIZATION
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According to a research at an English university, it doesn't matter in what order the letters in a word are. • The only important thing is that first and last letter is at the right place. • The rest can be a total mess and you can still read it without problem. • This is because we do not read every letter by itself but the word as a whole and in its context.
2nd order change CURRENT PRINCIPLES OF LIFE NEW PRINCIPLES OF LIFE 2nd ORDER REFORMULATION OF OPERATIONAL CONCEPTS CURRENT RULES & REFERENCES 1st ORDER Expected system behaviour Current system behaviour THE 2nd ORDER CHANGE
“REFRAMING” • - Changes the conceptual setting of a situation - Put it into another frame or context • New frame must: • fit equally well or better the “facts” of the same concrete situation • change its entire meaning • Once a new association is perceived: • - no return to the former vision
2nd order Dessert Milk 1st order “REFRAMING”
THE 3 SINS OF CHANGES • Ignoring the logical structure of complexity • Not keeping the logical levels apart • Attempting the change at the wrong level
Reframing the organisational principles Reframing homo sapiens Reframing the rule of labour relations Reframing the structure Reframing the policy deployment Reframing the notion of quality Reframing continuous improvement REFRAMING A MANUFACTURING COMPANYLet's put cybernetics into management! The door now is open for countless subsequent reframing…!
WHAT'S ARE THE TANGIBLE BENEFITS ? DISCOVERING THE HIDDEN FACTORY
Nobody listen to us We want to participate stop harrasment Stupid Jo HERE What a mess It’s the hell!!! We want CMM Betty I love you
THE HIDDEN FACTORY: Most of the problems which occur on the factory floor have their origin out of it They are problems linked to interactions: - communication - norms - administration To management style as a whole
Hidden problems: • Deficient communication • Obsolete or inappropriate norms • Inadequate changes • Problems poorly solved • Technology poorly implemented • Not adapted working place • Inappropriate materials and tools • Improvised innovations • Insufficient training • Bad planning • Etc… The hidden factory
Potential Real Reduction of structural cost & Reframing the premises of the organisation & Discovering the “hidden” factory Opportunities Registered Time VALUE CREATION IN MANUFACTURING
Potential Real Value creation The “hidden” factory Registered Time VALUE CREATION IN MANUFACTURING REAL Opportunities REGISTERED