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  1. Type COM 365 Newspaper Layout & Design

  2. Measurement • 12 points = 1 pica • 6 picas = 1 inch • 72 points = 1 inch

  3. Type size • Point is smallest unit of measurement • thickness of rules • space between lines • height of type • If type is 36 point, about 1/2 inch high • 72 points, about 1 inch high

  4. Cap height is the distance from the top of the capital letter to its bottom. The x-height is the height of the main body of the lowercase letter (or the height of a lowercase x ). The baseline is the imaginary line the type sits on.

  5. When two typefaces are set in the same point size, one often looks bigger than the other. Bigger x-heights, introduced in the twentieth century, make a typeface appear larger. Differences in line weight and character width also affect the letters' apparent scale.

  6. 88 point type Garamond Arial bbbbbb Bookman Times Goudy Helvetica

  7. Strokes • Lines that are drawn to form letters • Serifs • Lines some designers used to finish off strokes • Flat, rounded and bracketed serifs

  8. Serif (Goudy) A Think and thin strokes Serif

  9. San Serif (Helvetica) Ah Monotonal strokes No serifs

  10. Type categories • Basic categories • Roman • Sans Serif • Egyptians (square serifs) • Cursives (scriptives) • Novelty • Black letter (Old English) • Families • Goudy family, Bodoni family • Named after the designer

  11. Font • All characters available in one style and size • 48 Goudy Italic • Usually about 125 characters in a font • Includes all lowercase letters, uppercase letters, numbers and special symbols

  12. Type families

  13. Fake! Fake! Fake!

  14. Roman • Have serifs • Strokes have contrast (thick and thin) • Old style > less contrast in strokes • Modern > a lot of contrast in strokes • Thinner serifs • Convey tradition, distinction Baskerville Garamond Palatino Bodoni

  15. Sans Serif Arial Gill Sans Optima Helvetica News Gothic • Have no serifs • Have a more modern look

  16. Slab serif • Also known as Egyptian or block serifs • Evenness of weight, stroke • Square serifs • Not meant to be used for text • Headlines, ads, posters • Also called Egyptian because convey image of that part of world Courier Rockwell

  17. Cursive • Resemble handwriting • Not italic • Not very readable, used for invitations • or as in the case of Mistral, to convey sense of casualness Mistral Brush

  18. Decorative • Include types designed for special effect • Very specific in the meaning they convey • Also called decorative Cracked Marker Felt Stencil

  19. Black letter • or Old English • Sort of Gothic, medieval looking • Used sparingly • Newspapers use for nameplates

  20. Anti-aliasing ANTIALIASING is a technique for making the edges of letters look smooth on screen by rendering some pixels in shades of gray. Antialiasing is generally helpful for presenting text on screen at large sizes (12 pixels and higher), but it can make small text difficult to read.

  21. When preparing images for the Web in Photoshop, you can select among several anti-aliasing settings, from “none” (which generates bitmapped letters), to “smooth” (which works best at large sizes).

  22. Kerning • Allows designer to adjust spacing between letters and words • Computer programs automatically set kerning • Controlled by a table of kerning pairs, which specify spaces between different letter combinations.

  23. Page Computer set P a Kerned

  24. If letters in a typeface are spaced too uniformly, they make a pattern that doesn’t look uniform enough. Gaps occur, for example, around letters whose forms angle outward or frame an open space (W, Y, V, T, L). Because the space between characters expands as the type size increases, designers often fine-tune letterspacing when working with large letters. As the word “rub” gets bigger, the gap between u and b grows more obvious.

  25. Tracking Adjusting the spacing across a word, line, or column of text is called tracking, also known as letterspacing. It is common practice to letterspace capitals and small capitals, which appear more regal when standing apart. By slightly expanding the tracking across a body of text, the designer can create a more airy field. Type crime: negative trackingMake the shoe fit, not the foot. Don’t use negative tracking to save space.

  26. Leading (or line spacing) • Distance between each line of text • Term comes from inserting lead bars between lines of text • From baseline to baseline • Measured in points • Use this equation to specify type • Point size of type over leading • 12 / 14 • 12 point type, 14 points of leading

  27. Set width You can change the set width of a letter by fiddling with its horizontal or vertical scale. This distorts the proportion of the typeface, forcing heavy elements to become thin, and thin elements to become thick. Instead of torturing a letterform, choose a typeface with the proportions you need, such as condensed, compressed, or extended.

  28. Type crime alert!

  29. Alignment Flush left/ ragged right Newspaper circulation fell 2.6 percent in the six-month period ending in March, according to data released Monday, as more people turned to the Internet and other media outlets for news and information. The decline in average paid weekday circulation was about the same as the previous six-month reporting cycle for the period ending last September, according to the Newspaper Association of America, a trade group. Average paid circulation at Sunday newspapers fell 3.1 percent versus the same period a year ago, also a comparable decline with the last time circulation tallies were reported, the NAA said. The figures were based on NAA's analysis of circulation figures Type crime: Bad Rag An ugly wedge-shape spoils the ragged edge. A bad rag will fall into weird shapes along the right edge, instead of looking random

  30. Justified Newspaper circulation fell 2.6 percent in the six-month period ending in March, according to data released Monday, as more people turned to the Internet and other media outlets for news and information. The decline in average paid weekday circulation was about the same as the previous six-month reporting cycle for the period ending last September, according to the Newspaper Association of America, a trade group. Average paid circulation at Sunday newspapers fell 3.1 percent versus the same period a year ago, also a comparable decline with the last time circulation tallies were reported, the NAA said. The figures were based on NAA's analysis of circulation figures Type crime: A column that is too narrow is full of gaps. Ugly gaps appear when the designer has made the line length too short or the author used words that are too l o n g.

  31. Centered Flush right, ragged left Newspaper circulation fell 2.6 percent in the six-month period ending in March, according to data released Monday, as more people turned to the Internet and other media outlets for news and information. The decline in average paid weekday circulation was about the same as the previous six-month reporting cycle for the period ending last September, according to the Newspaper Association of America, a trade group. Average paid circulation at Sunday newspapers fell 3.1 percent versus the same period a year ago, also a comparable decline with the last time circulation tallies were reported, the NAA said. The figures were based on NAA's analysis of circulation figures Newspaper circulation fell 2.6 percent in the six-month period ending in March, according to data released Monday, as more people turned to the Internet and other media outlets for news and information. The decline in average paid weekday circulation was about the same as the previous six-month reporting cycle for the period ending last September, according to the Newspaper Association of America, a trade group. Average paid circulation at Sunday newspapers fell 3.1 percent versus the same period a year ago, also a comparable decline with the last time circulation tallies were reported, the NAA said. The figures were based on NAA's analysis of circulation figures

  32. Vertical type

  33. STACKED LETTERS Roman letters are designed to sit side by side, not on top of one another. Uppercase letters form more stable stacks than lowercase letters. Centering the column helps to even out the differences in width. (The letter I is a perennial problem.) Stacks of lowercase letters are especially awkward because the ascenders and descenders make the vertical spacing appear uneven, and the varied width of the characters makes the stacks look precarious. It is more common in the U.S., to run text on the spines of books from top to bottom. In other words, avoid stacked type at all costs!

  34. CREATING EMPHASIS WITHIN RUNNING TEXT Emphasizing a word or phrase within a body of text usually only requires only one “signal.”Italic is the standard form of emphasis. There are many alternatives, however, including boldface, SMALL CAPS, or a change in color. You can also create emphasis with a different font, just adjust the sizes so the x-heights align. 18 point 16 point BOLD, ITALIC, UNDERLINED CAPS! Type crime: Too many signals. Emphasis can be created with just one signal.

  35. Expressing meaning with type Fragile Psyche r dis uption everywhere water, water

  36. Paragraphs Indent, justified Ragged right, no indents The average American home now has more television sets than people. That threshold was crossed within the past two years, according to Nielsen Media Research. There are 2.73 TV sets in the typical home and 2.55 people, the researchers said. With televisions now on buses, elevators and in airport lobbies, that development may have as much to do with TV's ubiquity as an appliance as it does conspicuous consumption. The popularity of flat-screen TVs now make it easy to put sets where they haven't been before. Rick Melen, a facilities manager, has three sets in the Somers, New York, home he The average American home now has more television sets than people. That threshold was crossed within the past two years, according to Nielsen Media Research. There are 2.73 TV sets in the typical home and 2.55 people, the researchers said. With televisions now on buses, elevators and in airport lobbies, that development may have as much to do with TV's ubiquity as an appliance as it does conspicuous consumption. The popularity of flat-screen TVs now make it easy to put sets where they haven't been before. Rick Melen, a facilities manager, has three sets in the

  37. Symbol, no line breaks The average American home now has more television sets than people. ¶That threshold was crossed within the past two years, according to the Nielsen Media Research Group. ¶There are 2.73 TV sets in the typical home and 2.55 people, the researchers said. With televisions now on buses, elevators and in airport lobbies, that development may have as much to do with TV's ubiquity as an appliance as it does conspicuous consumption. ¶The popularity of flat-screen TVs now make it easy to put sets where they haven't been before. Rick Melon, a facilities manager, has three sets in the Somers, New York, home he