Grace Bible College Writing Workshop #2APA, Organization and Thesis Statements.
WRITING WORKSHOP #2 Agenda • APA Formatting • Thesis/Organization • Researching: Grace Bible College Library
What is APA? • APA • (American Psychological Association) • is the most commonly used format for manuscripts in the Social Sciences. • APA regulates: • Stylistics • In-text citations • References • (a list of all sources used in the paper)
APA stylistics: BasicsPoint of view and voice in an APA paper Use: • the third person point of view rather than using the first person point of view or the passive voice • The study showed that…, NOT • I found out that…. • the active voice rather than passive voice • The participants responded…, NOT • The participants have been asked….
APA stylistics: Language • Language in an APA • paper is: • clear: be specific in • descriptions and explanations • concise: condense information when you can • plain: use simple, descriptive adjectives and minimize the figurative language
General Format Your essay should: • be typed, double-spaced, with two spaces after punctuation between sentences • on standard-sized paper (8.5”x11”) • with 1” margins on all sides • in 12 pt. Times New Roman
General Format • Header • include a page header (title) in the upper left hand of every page and a page number in the • upper right-hand side of every page Running head: SHORT TITLE OF YOUR PAPER 1 The Title of Your Paper Your Name School Affiliation
GENERAL FORMAT (CONT’D) References Your essay should include four major sections: Main Body Abstract Title page
g TITLE PAGE Page header: (use Insert Page Header) title flush left + page number flush right. Title: (in the upper half of the page, centered) name (no title or degree) + affiliation (university, etc.)
Abstract Page Page header: do NOT include “Running head:” Abstract (centered, at the top of the page) Write a brief (between 150 and 250 words) summary of your paper in an accurate, concise, and specific manner. Should contain: at research topic, research questions, participants, methods, results, data analysis, and conclusions. May also include possible implications of your research and future work you see connected with your findings. May also include keywords.
Main Body (Text) • The first text page is page number 3 • Type the title of the paper centered, at the top of the page • Type the text double-spaced with all sections following each other without a break • Identify the sources you use in the paper in parenthetical in-text citations
References Page • Center the title - References-- at the top • of the page • Double-space • reference entries • Flush left the first line of the entry and indent subsequent lines (hanging indent) • Order entries alphabetically by the author’s surnames Do NOT include “Running head:” in the header after the title page!
REFERENCES: BASICS • Knightcite.com
IN-TEXT CITATIONS: BASICS Whenever you use a source, provide in parentheses: • the author’s name and the date of publication • for quotations and close paraphrases, provide a • page number as well In-text citations help readers locate the cited source in the References section of the paper.
In-text Citations: Format for a quotation When quoting, introduce the quotation with a signal phrase. Make sure to include the author’s name, the year of publication, the page number, but keep the citation brief—do not repeat the information. • Caruth (1996) states that a traumatic response • frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive • appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive • phenomena” (p.11). • A traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, • uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations • and other intrusive phenomena” (Caruth, 1996, p.11).
In-text Citations: Format for a summary or paraphrase • There are several formats for • a summary or paraphrase: • provide the author’s last name • and the year of publication in • parentheses after a summary or • a paraphrase: • Though feminist studies focus solely on women's • experiences, they err by collectively perpetuating the • masculine-centered impressions (Fussell, 1975).
In-text Citations: A work with two authors • When citing a work with two authors, use “and” in between authors’ name in the signal phrase yet “&” between their names in parentheses: According to feminist researchers Raitt and Tate (1997), “It is no longer true to claim that women's responses to the war have been ignored” (p. 2). Some feminists researchers question that “women's responses to the war have been ignored” (Raitt & Tate, 1997, p. 2).
In-text Citations: A work with 3 to 5 authors • When citing a work with three to five • authors, identify all authors in the • signal phrase or in parentheses: • (Harklau, Siegal, & Losey, 1999) • In subsequent citations, only use the first • author's last name followed by "et al." in the • signal phrase or in parentheses: • (Harklau et al., 1999)
In-text Citations: a work with 6 and more authors • When citing a work with six and more authors, • identify the first author’s name followed • by “et al.”: • Smith et al. (2006) • maintained that…. • (Smith et al., 2006)
In-text Citations: A work of unknown author • When citing a work of unknown author, use the • source’s full title in the signal phrase and • cite the first word of the title followed by the • year of publication in parenthesis. Put titles of • articles and chapters in quotation marks; • italicize titles of books and reports: • According to “Indiana Joins Federal • Accountability System” (2008), … • Or, • (“Indiana,” 2008)
In-text Citations: Organization • When citing an organization, mention the organization the first time when you cite the source in the signal phrase or the parenthetical citation: • The data collected by the Food and Drug • Administration (2008) confirmed that… • If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations: • Food and Drug Administration (FDA) confirmed… FDA’s experts tested…
In-text Citations: Personal communication • When citing interviews, letters, e-mails, etc., • include the communicator’s name, the fact that it • was personal communication, and the date of the • communication. Do not include personal • communication in the reference list: • A. P. Smith also claimed that many of her students • had difficulties with APA style (personal • communication, November 3, 2002). • Or, • (E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, • 2001).
IN-TEXT CITATIONS: Biblical Reference • When using verses from the Bible, use the • reference and the first time put the • translation in parentheses. For the rest of • the paper, you did not need to cite the • translation, unless you are using different • versions. • You do not include Biblical references in your reference page. • Unfortunately, the president could not recall the truism found in Proverbs 16:22 that "Prudence is a fountain of life to the prudent, but folly brings punishment to fools" (New International Version).
In-text Citations: Electronic sources • When citing an electronic document, whenever possible, cite it in the author-date style. • If electronic source lacks page numbers, locate and identify paragraph number/paragraph heading: According to Smith (1997), ... (Mind over Matter section, para. 6).
APA HEADINGS -6TH EDITION APA uses a system of five heading levels
If you need help with APA There are several reference sources to get an answer to your specific question about APA: • OWL website: http://owl.english.purdue.edu • composition textbooks • Publication Manual of the American Psychological • Association, 6th ed. • http://www.apastyle.org
THESIS AND ORGANIZATION Questions on APA formatting?
Thesis Statements • A thesis statement is a brief introductory statement – usually no more than one or two sentences – that summarizes the arguments a paper will explore or cover. Thesis statements usually appear in the last sentence of the first paragraph and can help readers decide if an article is covering the types of topics they’re interested in – or let teachers see the arguments a student promises to make in his or her essay. • “Getting kids to develop early reading skills is crucial not only for combating basic illiteracy but also for helping kids gain a love of reading for pleasure and research.” • The above thesis statement explains: • what topic the paper will cover (developing early reading skills), • the writer’s opinion on the topic (he or she believes developing early reading skills is important), • and the points the writer will explore to justify this opinion (combating illiteracy and developing a love of reading). http://www.suite101.com/content/tips-for-writing-a-thesis-statement-a206626
Thesis Statements How to write an effective thesis statement • Raise specific issues for the essay to explore • This paper will discuss gender in Fairytales • The depiction of women in Fairytales promotes gender inequality by focusing on the reward of marriage • Devise a question about the facts or issues raised about the topic. • The rise of technology has greatly impacted the newspaper industry. • The rise of technology has changed the way the public consumes news, and not in a good way.
Thesis Statements How to write an effective thesis statement • Avoid clichés - complicate the issue, look for more than one point of view • Women are used to market cars because sex sells. • The tendency to use women to sell cars is often seen as an example of the wide-spread objectification of women by the advertising industry. However, others see it as a sign of female emancipation. • Avoid offering personal opinion - be more objective and look at other points of view; treat your ideas as hypothesis to be tested rather than obvious truths. • Toni Morrison is the best writer of the twentieth century because her work really speaks to me. • Toni Morrison’s writing has helped to educate a whole new generation on the effects of slavery in the United States.
Thesis Statements • Think about TOM • Topic • Opinion • Main Points
Thesis Statements Prompt: Explain why a healthy diet is important. • Weak Thesis Examples: • Too broad: A healthy diet is important. • Too narrow: People should include eight servings of fruits and vegetables in their diet everyday. • Off topic: Bananas are one of the most nutritious foods on earth. • Strong thesis: A healthy diet is important because it increases energy, prevents illness and promotes well-being in all people
Thesis Statements Prompt: Convince your reader whether school uniforms should be mandatory in public schools. • Weak Thesis Examples: • Too broad: It is outrageous for students to be forced to wear school uniforms. • Too narrow: Students who are forced to wear school uniforms have their creativity stifled. • Off topic: When kids grow up, they will have bad memories of school. • Strong thesis: School uniforms should not be mandatory in public schools because it would stifle students’ creativity, take away students’ rights, and cause students to lose interest in school
Thesis Statements Prompt: How does Kurt Vonnegut use literary elements to criticize the government in the short story, “Harrison Bergeron”? • Weak Thesis Examples • Too broad: Vonnegut criticized the government in many ways. • Too narrow: Vonnegut shows that Harrison deserves to be treated fairly, not like he is a freak. • Off topic: Vonnegut was also critical of too much government control in several novels he wrote. • Strong Thesis: In “Harrison Bergeron,” Vonnegut criticizes the government through the use of indirect characterization, irony, and external conflict.
Organizing Your Paper Outline your main points. Listen to your thesis. This will help structure your paper. • Main points are those key insights that readers need to learn in order to accept the truth of your thesis. • Ask "What do readers need to know?” • How much background information is necessary – this should not take over the majority of your paper. • Be sure to allow for time to build your points (quotes, stats, anecdotes…)
Organizing Your Paper Graphic Organizers: Pyramid This is the essential pattern of the Thesis/Support Essay, which takes the pyramidal structure through four levels (thesis, topic sentence, support sentence, detail).
Organizing Your Paper: Outline • Write your focus statement. • I. Write your first topic sentence. • Write your first supporting detail. • Write your second supporting detail. • Add more letters for more supporting details (or delete this line). • II. Write your second topic sentence. • Write your first supporting detail. • Write your second supporting detail. • Add more letters for more supporting details (or delete this line). • III. Write your third topic sentence. • Write your first supporting detail. • Write your second supporting detail. • Add more letters for more supporting details (or delete this line).
Organizing Your Paper: Outline • Tornadoes are nature’s most violent storms. • I. Tornadoes form when two masses of air meet and battle in the sky. • Warm, moist air and cold, dry air collide and form updrafts. • A large rotating thunderhead called a supercell forms. • A vortex (funnel) takes shape inside the supercell and reaches for the ground. • Once the funnel touches the ground, it is a tornado. • II. Tornadoes cause damage with high winds, low pressure, and hail storms. • Winds of more than 250 mph hurl debris as missiles. • Low pressure rips roofs off buildings. • Pea-size to grapefruit-size hail smashes cars and buildings. • III. A few simple precautions can help people stay safe during a tornado. • Create and agree upon a plan to follow in case of a tornado. • Find a place without windows, preferably a room in a basement or a closet in the middle of the house.
Researching/Writing Your Paper • Use the outline to help you research • Start with overall background information • Then, use your outline to plug in the information you find. • Refer back to your outline to find holes and what areas you need to find more support for. • Use the outline to write your paper. • Write one section at a time. • Write clear transition statements to move • from one part of the paper to the next.
REVISIONS AND EDITING Questions about writing thesis statements?
Each paragraph should only be about one idea. • Begin with a topic sentence – give the reader an idea about what the paragraph will be about – like a mini thesis statement. • Will your reader be able to identify quickly the "topic" of each paragraph? Making the Most of Your Paragraphs
Evaluate your evidence. • Does the body of your paper support your thesis? • Do you offer enough evidence to support your claim? • If you are using quotations from the text as evidence, did you cite them properly? • Save only the good pieces. • Do all of the ideas relate back to the thesis? • Is there anything that doesn't seem to fit? • If so, you either need to change your thesis to reflect the idea or cut the idea. Revising Your Paper
Switch from Writer-Centered to Reader-Centered • Try to detach yourself from what you've written; pretend that you are reviewing someone else's work. • What would you say is the most successful part of your paper? Why? • How could this part be made even better? • What would you say is the least successful part of your paper? Why? • How could this part be improved? Revising Your Paper
Know your style • Think, then write • Write, then revise • Revise first • Look for flow and organization • What should be kept? What should be taken out? • Save in different files • Keep reworking your thesis • Edit last • Edit for grammar, spelling, punctuation, etc. just before the final draft is completed – it doesn’t make sense to do it before your major revisions Proofreading Your Paper
RESEARCHING Researching for academic papers.
Boolean Operators http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xsSZps3NH-M
Refining Keyword Searches • Use quotation marks around words that are part of a phrase: “Broadway musicals”. • Use AND to connect words that must appear in a document: Ireland AND peace. • Use NOT in front of words that must not appear in a document: Titanic NOT movie. • Use OR if only one of the terms must appear in the document: mountain lion OR cougar. • Use an asterisk as a substitute for letters that might vary: “marine biolog*” (to find marine biology or biologist) • Use parentheses to group a search expression and combine it with another: (cigarettes OR tobacco OR smok*) AND lawsuits
Bultema Memorial Library http://gbcol.edu/index.php/academics/library/
Bultema Memorial Library I contacted the head librarian to try to get resources for showing a few key aspects of navigating the library.