Literacy @ LakesideThe following literacy procedures will help you in every class.
The HRLTPs Getting Knowledge Ready Vocabulary Reading Aloud What questions does the text answer? Paraphrasing Summarise Review
Procedure 1.Getting Knowledge Ready means: • Thinking about our new topic or text • Finding out what we already know • Visualising (making a picture or movie) in our heads • Relating what we already know to our topic or text.
When you get your knowledge ready ask yourself: • Why are we reading this text? • What do I already know about this text or topic? • Can I look at the title and sub headings of the text and guess what the text is about? • Can I skim and scan the paragraphs? • What do the pictures and illustrations tell me? • Can I imagine or visualize (create a picture in my mind) a key idea, event or topic? • What questions will it answer?
For example: You are starting a topic on “Egypt” in Humanities. How will you “get your Knowledge ready” at home and at school? • It helps if you close your eyes and visualise anything that reminds you of that word. • If you can’t think of anything scan your text for ideas. • Did you see a movie on Egypt? • Do you know what and where it is?
L Did you think of any of these?
Procedure 2.Vocabulary To learn new words I need to: Highlight or underline the words I don’t know and put them in a glossary Say,spell and provide a synonym for each word Link the word with other words I know Use the new words and new ideas in full sentences
Learning new vocabulary will help you: • read words accurately • understand what you are reading • improve your spelling • improve your vocabulary • learn more about the topic you are learning
Vocabulary activity: Can you work out what triangulate means? • To find the location of the forest fire we had to triangulate from the peaks of nearby mountains. tri=three?? angul=angle?? ate=the action?? How could drawing angles help me find a fire??
Triangulation is the process of pinpointing the location of something by taking bearings to it from three remote points. Forest fire lookout towers use triangulation to locate spot fires.
Procedure 3: Reading aloudWhy reading aloud is important: • Understand the text better • hearing the pronunciation of words helps with the meaning • practise converting letter strings into words • convert a text into images or actions • learn and use sentence templates
What should you be thinking and doing while you read? • Recognise letter patterns (retrieve sounds) e.g late, mate, date, crate • Practise pronouncing unfamiliar words e.g triangulate • Self-correct pronunciation e.g psychology • Run your finger along the text to guide your reading • Use your finger to segment (break up) the text • Pause at any point and think about what happened and try and predict what will happen next.
When I read the text aloud • Can I sound out the words I have difficulty reading? • Can I identify the topic sentence from each paragraph? • Can I find the key ideas and words in a paragraph? • Can I use self-talk to work out the meaning of new words and the text?
What is self talk? Self talk is stopping and thinking of ways to find an answer before asking a teacher. Ask yourself: • What could it/does the word/text mean? • Are there smaller words within the word? • Can I think of synonyms? • Do the synonyms fit/make sense? • Can I look at the words around it? • Do I need to re-read or read on? • What other words look like or sound like this word? • What pictures does this word bring up in my head?
Procedure 4. Paraphrasing Why is Important? • Develops and reinforces understanding of the text • Helps with your expression and grammar • Builds and reinforces vocabulary • A necessary building block for summarising
How do you paraphrase? Visualise (build an image) of the sentence Change words (synonyms) Re-arrange the word order in the sentences Match paraphrased sentences Consider the context (Don’t change the meaning)
How do I paraphrase on my own? • Can I tell you what I’ve read in my own words without changing the meaning? • Can I rewrite the key ideas in my own words?
Procedure 5.Say Questions the text answers. • What would I like to know about the text? • What questions do I think the text will answer? • Can I ask about “who, what, where, when, why” questions?
What is the purpose of asking questions? • Helps you analyse the sentence • Encourages you to be more active readers • Builds skills in answering questions • Makes you a better reader • Helps you answer questions better • Helps you break up a text
Activity. Can you think of questions for this text? Effectively, it seems, the pyramid served both as a gigantic training project and - deliberately or not - as a source of 'Egyptianisation'. The workers who left their communities of maybe 50 or 100 people, to live in a town of 15,000 or more strangers, returned to the provinces with new skills, a wider outlook and a renewed sense of national unity that balanced the loss of loyalty to local traditions. The use of shifts of workers spread the burden and brought about a thorough redistribution of pharaoh's wealth in the form of rations. Why did the building of pyramids develop the skills of the wider community? How did the building of pyramids redistribute wealth through the wider community? How did the building of pyramids affect the development of Egyptian nationalism?
Procedure 6.SummarisingHow do I summarise? • Can I look at how the information is organised? • Can I summarise the key ideas, facts and themes?
What do you do to make an effective summary? • select main ideas • categorise ideas • delete unnecessary details • state the general idea
Why is Summarising Important? • shows understanding • higher order thinking • engagement with the text • links knowledge
When should I summarise? • At the end of each paragraph • At the end of the text • At the end of a topic
How do I write a good summary? You need to: • Skim and to scan a paragraph at a time • Read the whole paragraph carefully • Highlight the topic sentence of a paragraph • Write the topic sentence or heading for a paragraph • Underline the key words/ list the key words • Link key words into meaningful sentences • Say in one sentence what the paragraph is about or what students know after having read it • Say the main question a paragraph answers • Reduce the content of the original
Procedure 7.Review and Consolidate • Do I know what the purpose of the text was? Why did the author write this? • What did I learn from this text? • Can I compare the outcomes with my earlier predictions? • Can I remember all the key words, themes and ideas quickly?
Review as a way of consolidating knowledge Long Term Memory (Existing Knowledge) Short Term Memory Thinking Space New Knowledge The Nile was able to “sustain” life in Egypt. New Information The Nile was able to “sustain” life in Egypt.
So what do you know now about the 7 literacy procedures that you didn’t know before?
And finally… • Use each strategy as you need it • Train yourself to think about and automatically use the strategies • Use the page in your diary to remind you of them • Use them consistently at school and at home and you will get…..
Sources Professor John MunroThis powerpoint adapted by Effie Sgardelis from the PPT developed by the NMR team below • Alistair Forge • Yota Korkoneas • Lillian Leptos • Les Mitchell • David Mockridge Karen Money Petrina Scanlan Effie Sgardelis Jan Smith