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pelvic girdle lower limbs p 158 161 n.
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Pelvic Girdle-Lower Limbs p. 158-161 PowerPoint Presentation
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Pelvic Girdle-Lower Limbs p. 158-161

Pelvic Girdle-Lower Limbs p. 158-161

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Pelvic Girdle-Lower Limbs p. 158-161

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  1. Pelvic Girdle-Lower Limbs p. 158-161 • Pelvic Girdle • Consists of two coxal bones that articulate with each other anteriorly and with the sacrum posteriorly. • Saccrum, Coccyx, and Pelvic Girdle form Pelvis

  2. Coxal Bone • Consists of: • Ilium • Ischium • Pubis • Fused in the region of acetabulum

  3. Ilium • Largest portion of coxal bone • Joins the sacrum at the sacroiliac joint

  4. Ischium • Lowest portion of the coxal bone • Supports the body weight when sitting

  5. Pubis • Anterior portion of the coxal bone • Fused anteriorly at the symphysis pubis

  6. Lower Limb • Provide frameworks for the thigh, leg and foot • Consists of: • Femur • Tibia • Fibula • Foot

  7. Femur • Extends from hip to the knee • Largest bone in body • Patella articulates with its anterior surface

  8. Tibia • Located on the medial side of leg • Articulates with the talus of the ankle

  9. Fibula • Located on the lateral side of the tibia • Articulates with the ankle, but does not bear body weight

  10. Foot • Consists of: • Ankle • Instep • Five toes • Includes: • 7 tarsals • 5 metatarsals • 14 phalanges

  11. Ankle=Tarus • Contains: • Calcaneus • Talus • Navicular • Medial cuneiform • Intermendiate cuneiform • Lateral cuneiform • Cuboid

  12. Metatarsals • Consists of: • Metatarsals 1-5

  13. Phalanges • Same as fingers • Big toe has two phalanx • All others have 3 • Proximal, Middle, and Distal

  14. Joints p. 162-167 • Classified on basis of the amount of movement they make • 3 types • Immovable • Slightly Movable • Freely Movable

  15. Immovable Joints • Bones are in close contact • Separated by a thin layer of fibrous tissue of cartilage • Similar to that of a suture • No active movements are possible by these joints

  16. Slightly Movable Joints • Connected by disks of fibrocartilage or by ligaments • Example: vertebrae • Limit the amount of movement

  17. Freely Movable Joints • Bones are fee to move • Covered by hyaline cartilage and held together by fibrous capsule • Capsule consists of an outer layer of ligaments and an inner lining of synovial membrane • Bursae are often located between the skin and underlying bony prominences

  18. Freely Movable Joints • Examples: • Ball and socket • Condyloid • Gliding • Hinge • Pivot • saddle

  19. Types of Joint Movements • Movement of synovial joints are produced by muscles that are fastened on either side of joint by tendons. • Movements include: • Flexion/extension • Dorsiflexion/plantar flexion • Hyperextension • Abduction/adduction • Rotation/circumduction • Pronation/supination • Eversion/inversion • Retratcion/protraction • Elevation/depression

  20. Flexion-Extension • Flexion: bending parts so that the angle between them decreases and the parts come closer together. • Extension: straightening parts at a joint so that the angle between them increases and the parts move farther apart.

  21. Dorsiflexion-Plantar Flexion • Dorsiflexion-flexing the foot at the angle toward the shin (bending foot upward) • Plantar Flexion: flexing the foot at the ankle toward the sole (bending the foot downward)

  22. Hyperextension • Excessive extension of the parts at a joint, beyond the normal range of motion (elbow or knee)

  23. Abduction-Adduction • Abduction-moving a part away from the midline • Adduction-moving a part toward the midline

  24. Rotation-Circumduction • Rotation-moving a part around an axis (twisting head from side to side) • Circumduction-moving a part so that its end follows a circular path (moving finger in circular motion without moving hand)

  25. Pronation-Supination • Pronation: turning the hand so that the palm is downward or turning the foot so that the medial margin is lowered • Supination: Turning the hand so that the palm is upward or turning the foot so that the medial margin is raised.

  26. Eversion-Inversion • Eversion: turning the foot so that the sole is outward • Inversion: turning the foot so that the sole is inward

  27. Retraction-Protraction • Retraction: Moving a part backward (pulling the chin backward) • Protraction: Moving a part forward (thruting the chin forward)

  28. Elevation-Depression • Elevation: raising a part (shrugging the shoulders) • Depression: lowering a part (drooping the shoulders)