Leisure Activities Chapters 10- 18 Alison Gensmer
Key Terms • The Age of the Common Man - the period that American writers and painters found the national themes that allowed them to produce the first distinctly American art and literature • Philadelphia’s American Philosophical Society - founded by Benjamin Franklin in 1743 this society would nurture American art and literature • Boston Athenaeum (1807) - the Boston Athenaeum was a gentlemen’s reading room that contained “the works of learning and science in all languages.” • Leatherstocking Novels - James Fenimore Cooper published these novels including The Last of the Mohicans in 1826 • The Sketch Book- In 1819 Washington Irving published this book that brought us Rip Van Winkle and the Headless Horseman
Leisure Activities Mark Twain drew inspiration from the Mississippi River in “Old Times on the Mississippi” The age of the Common Man would be the period that American writers and painters found the national themes that allowed them to produce the first distinctly American art and literature The transportation revolution improved communication This would cause the number of newspapers, magazines, and books increase greatly This increase helped to broaden people’s horizons past their own community In 1826 a press revolution occurred when the first steam-powered press was installed in the country bible production increased to 300,000 religious tracts and pamphlets increased to 6 million newspaper numbers went from 376 (in 1810) to 1,200 (in 1835) most newspapers were published by political parties Literature
Leisure Activities newspapers were packed with articles that would now be called libelous and scandalous but were very entertaining and popular to read Western readers enjoyed the tall tales of Davey Crockett in the Crockett almanacs religious readings were most common across the country sentimental novels and magazines were very popular with women Philadelphia’s American Philosophical Society was founded by Benjamin Franklin in 1743 This society would nurture American art and literature Boston was second after Philadelphia as it founded the Massachusetts General Hospital (1811) and the Boston Athenaeum (1807) the Boston Athenaeum was a gentlemen’s reading room which contained “the works of learning and science in all languages.” The North American Review was published in Boston and emerged as America’s important and long-lasting intellectual magazine The Review was devoted to keeping its readers in touch with European intellectual developments Literature (continued)
Leisure Activities Charleston founded a Literary and Philosophical Society in 1814 but because the south was so spread out it was very difficult to sustain the south willingly ceded cultural leadership to the north In 1819 Washington Irving published The Sketch Book that brought us Rip Van Winkle and the Headless Horseman James Fenimore Cooper published his Leatherstocking Novels including The Last of the Mohicans in 1826 Literature (continued)
Leisure Activities Thomas Cole, who came from England 1818, was inspired by the American landscape he painted landscapes of New York States Catskill and the Adirondack mountains his paintings reflect the British romantic school of landscape painting he founded the Hudson River school of American painting the school had a nationalistic style and subject matter Western painters drew on the dramatic western landscape and ts people George Catlin was one of these western painters he spent eight years with the Indians so that he could portray them in his paintings before they disappeared John James Audubon was famous for his striking and sometimes grotesque etching of birds sometimes he couldn’t even find a publisher they were so grotesque Art
Leisure Activities • There was a famous song about the Erie Canal which was built in New York and caused merchants of America want to stay in New York instead of in Europe • In 1844 Samuel F. B. Morse sent his first message from Washington to Baltimore via the telegraph • Everyone’s horizon and sense of community was widened because of the telegraph • in rural areas, money rarely exchanged hands as people would pay for a hand crafted item with a certain task • Apprenticeships were common • Men and women would learn to do certain tasks but a formal apprenticeship was only for men • There was no clear separation between work and leisure • preindustrial work had a freedom that factory work did not • the workers didn’t need t get used to the long hours because they were already accustomed to it • however before, workers were sometimes allowed to take a few hours of to go pick berries or something like that, but now they were expected to have a straight 12 hour work day
Notable People • James Fenimore Cooper - writer especially famous for his Leatherstocking Novels including The Last of the Mohicans in 1826 • Samuel F. B. Morse -invented the telegraph; sent his first message from Washington to Baltimore via the telegraph in 1844 • Thomas Cole - famous for paintings of landscapes which reflected the British romantic school of landscape painting; he founded the Hudson River school of American painting which had a nationalistic style and subject matter
1. Who wrote “Old Time on the Mississippi”? a) Mark Twainb) James Fenimore Cooper c) Rip Van Winkle
2. The transportation revolution improved which of the following? a) Transportation b) Communication c) Both a and b
CThe transportation revolution improved both transportation and communication.
3. Who founded Philadelphia’s American Philosophical Society? a) James Madison b) Benjamin Franklinc) Thomas Jefferson
BBenjamin Franklin founded Philadelphia’s American Philosophical Society.
4. What was founded in Boston in 1811? a) The Boston Athenaeum b) Massachusetts General Hospital c) both a and b
5. What magazine was published in Boston and emerged as America’s most important and long-lasting intellectual magazine? a) The North American Reviewb) The New York Timesc) The Bostonian Tribune
AThe North American Review was published in Boston and emerged as America’s most important and long-lasting intellectual magazine.
6. What southern City founded a Literary and Philosophical Society in 1814? a) Savannahb) Richmond c) Charleston
7. Rip Van Winkle and the Headless Horseman were featured in what book? a) The Sketch Bookb) TheLeatherstocking Novels c) The Last of the Mohicans
ARip Van Winkle and the Headless Horseman were featured in The Sketch Book.
8. Who wrote The Sketch Book ? a) Washington Irving b) James Fenimore Cooper c) Thomas Paine
9. Who spent eight years with Indians so that he could properly portray them in his paintings? a) John James Audubon b) George Catlin c) Thomas Cole
BGeorge Catlin spent eight years with Indians so that he could properly portray them in his paintings.
10. What did Samuel F. B. Morse invent ? a) The telephoneb) The television c) The telegraph
Key Terms • Callithumpian band – gangs of young workers from the lower class who took over the New Year’s Eve “frolic” tradition in New York City • Blackface Minstrel Show – a show in which white men blackened their faces and entertain their audiences with songs, dances, theatrical skits, and anti-black political jokes • Bowery – a New York City street known to display the new working class culture • “Penny Papers” – the papers that were very popular because they only cost penny and they focused on scandal • Tejanos – Spanish-speaking residents of Texas
Leisure Activities New pressures in the workforce caused a change in working-class amusements Leisure time now became rougher and rowdier Taverns were used as neighborhood centers of drinking and socializing Often times taverns also became centers for brawls and riots Community groups (such as fire engine groups) had changed to become very similar to gangs who had to defend their territory from any other gangs The butcher among other trades was often known to start fights in taverns New York City had had a long a tradition of a New Year’s Eve “frolic” where laborers, apprentices, and other members of the lower class would parade through the streets with drums, trumpets, whistles, and other noisemakers Changing Amusement
Leisure Activities By the 1820’s this tradition had been taken over by gangs of young workers from the lower class They called themselves the Callithumpian band In 1828 the band, which contained 4000, marched through the city overturning carts, breaking windows, and obstructing traffic The watchmen who were supposed to disperse the gathering decided not to The following year the New Year’s Eve parade was not allowed by the city government Changing Amusement (continued)
Leisure Activities Theaters even became a seen of violence They were attended by all social classes The only women that attended these theaters were prostitutes There was a long-standing tradition of poorer patrons starting a small riot about an unpopular actor which could then grow to become very violent The Astor Place Riot of 1849 was one of these riots It started out as a theater riot against a British actor and ended up being a battle between the mob and the militia which ended in the death of 22 people Theaters
Leisure Activities By the 1830’s upper- and middle-class men were no longer drawn to these theaters and began attending a much more respectable theater They could bring their wives and daughters to this theater There was new amusement in theaters like the Lafayette Circus that had dancing girls, horseback riders, and theatrical acts A show similar to this was the Blackface Minstrel Show In this show white actors, who were often Irish, would blacken their faces and entertain their audiences with songs, dances, theatrical skits, and anti-black political jokes Zip Coon and Jim Crow, two slaves that were known for being irresponsible and slow-witted respectively, were both featured in some cruel stereotypical jokes to entertain the white audiences Theaters (continued)
Leisure Activities Bowery was a New York City street known to display the new working class culture It was filled with artisanal workshops, small factories, shops with cheap goods, dance halls, theaters, ice cream parlors, and oyster bars On Bowery the working-class youth found Saturday night amusement as well as providing it for themselves with outrageous clothing and behavior They deliberately dressed more provocatively was there way of thumbing their noses at more respectable classes Even a long-running series of melodramas by the Bowery Theater included costumes that imitated this style Mose, the hero of the series, dressed more like a pirate and Lise, the leading lady, wore clothing which was body-hugging and brightly colored Bowery
Leisure Activities The “penny papers” such as the New York Morning Post and the New York Sun became very popular they got their name because they only costed a penny they focused on scandals with titles like “Double Suicide,” “Secret Tryst,” and “Bloody Murder,” A magazine called the Police Gazette had the same types of subjects Franklin Evans and The Inebriate were two dime novels written in 1842 by Walter Whitman In 1855 he wrote Leaves of Grass which was a book of free verse poetry that included frank language making it just as scandalous as his novels Literature
Leisure Activities Edgar Alan Poe was also famous for writing scandalous literature, but his was done in a much more sinister way Two of his gothic horror stories are “The Murders in the Rue Morge” (1841) and “The Mystery of Marie Roget” (1842) A decade after the “penny papers” began, the “penny press” had a lot of experience reporting urban crime and scandals It realized that Americans were so interested in reading about scandal that this type of reading became more popular than the opinions of politicians for the first time it was the things written by American journalists that shaped the way people felt about war, not the politicians voice Literature (continued)
Leisure Activities • The Tejano residents of Texas had their own customs • These included multiday celebrations that mixed religious ceremonies, feasting, horse racing, and elaborate fandangos (dances) • After the twin victories at Veracruz and Buena Vista, New York City celebrated with fireworks, illuminations, and a “grand Procession” which included around 400,000 people
Notable People • Walter Whitman –writer especially famous for writing about scandal trough novels and even poetry books • Edgar Alan Poe – author famous for writing scandalous literature done in a much more sinister way than Whitman
1. What caused a change in working-class amusements? a) A change in the workforceb) A drop in the economy c) The introduction of new ideas by immigrants
2. What common neighborhood location often became the site of brawls and riots? a) Tavernsb) librariesc) both a and b
3. During what decade was the New Year’s Eve “frolic” of NYC taken over by gangs? a) 1840’sb) 1830’sc) 1820’s
CDuring the 1820’s the New Year’s Eve “frolic” of NYC was taken over by gangs.
4. The Lafayette Circus had what kinds of entertainment in it? a) dancing girlsb) horseback ridersc) both a and b
CThe Lafayette Circus entertainment included dancing girls and horseback riders.