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  1. 10/12/10 DO NOW: List 5 things that humans classify (catergorize). Examples: CDs/DVDs Library Books • Objectives: • Explain how organisms are classified. • List the eight levels of classification. • Define classification and taxonomy.

  2. Why Classify? • Answering Questions The classification of living things makes it easier for biologist to answer many important questions such as: 1. How many known species are there? 2. What are the defining characteristics of each species? 3. What are the relationships between these species?

  3. How Do Scientists Classify Organisms? • In the 1700s, a Swedish scientist named Carolus Linnaeus founded modern taxonomy. • Taxonomy is the science of describing, classifying, and naming living things. • Classification Today Taxonomists use the eight-level system to classify living things based on shared characteristics.

  4. Branching Diagrams On a branching diagram, several characteristics are listed along the line that points to the right. Each characteristic is shared by the animals to the right of it.

  5. Levels of Classification • Kingdoms and Beyond The eight levels of classification are: 1. Domain 2. Kingdom 3. Phylum 4. Class 5. Order 6. Family 7. Genus 8. Species

  6. 10/13/10 DO NOW: How and why do scientists classify animals? Objectives: 1. Group imaginary organisms with similar characteristics. 2. Assign scientific names to the organisms.

  7. Levels of Classification • Kingdoms and Beyond The eight levels of classification are: 1. Domain 2. Kingdom 3. Phylum 4. Class 5. Order 6. Family 7. Genus 8. Species

  8. Scientific Names • Two-Part Names • The first part of a species’ name is the genus name. (Capitilized) • The second part of the name is the species name. (Lowercase) • Example: • Asian Elephant: Elephas maximus (Genus species) • Scientific names are always written in Latin and italicized.

  9. Scientific Names (Cont.) • One Species, One Name A scientific name is always the same for a specific kind of organism no matter how many common names there might be. • Example • Scientific Name : Pholcus phalagionides • Common Names • Daddy long legs • Granddaddy long-legs spider • Daddy long-legger • Cellar Spider • Vibrating Spider • House Spider

  10. Common Name: Daddy Long Legs Pholcusphalagionides Found worldwide Commonly found in basements or cellars Fragile and harmless Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Pholcidae • Phalangiumopilio • Mainly found in New Zealand • Thought to be harmful to humans (myth) • Does contain venom but only used against their prey • Animalia • Arthropoda • Arachnida • Opiliones • Phalangiidae

  11. TODAY’S MISSION • “Caminalcules Discovery” Part 1 Directions • Sort through your Caminalcules organisms. • The Kingdom, Phylum, Class, and Order have already been determined but scientists are having difficulty classifying the animals further. • For today you will organize all the different organisms into AT LEAST 5 different groups based on similarities. These will be the organism’s Family. • Use the colored pencils to mark each Family a different color. (DO NOT COLOR THE WHOLE PICTURE) • When you have finished that part try to make up Family names for each of your groups. (Remember family names always end in “idae”)

  12. 10/14/10 DO NOW: • What two parts of the eight level classification system comprise a scientific name? • Why do you think it is important to refer to organisms by their scientific name and not their common name? Objectives: 1. Group imaginary organisms with similar characteristics. 2. Assign family and scientific names to the organisms.

  13. TODAY’S MISSION • “Caminalcules Discovery” Part 2 Directions • After you have come up with Family names for your organism you may start your poster. • Your poster must include a title as well as the eight levels of classification for your Caminalcules organisms. • The first 4 classifications are done for you: Kingdom Animalia, Phylum Mollusca, Class Imaginata, and Order Ridiculosea. • Within each Family subdivide the group into genus and species on the basis of similar characteristics. • For each Family choose AT LEAST one Caminalcules creature and label it with a full scientific name (Genus + species) • On the back of your poster list three shared traits for each Family. • Start the conclusion questions

  14. 10/15/10 DO NOW: • List the eight levels of classification. • Get your assigned textbook from the back. • Objectives: • Define dichotomous key. • Utilize a dichotomous key in order to identify organisms.

  15. Dichotomous Keys • What Is a Dichotomous Key? A dichotomous key is a tool for identifying organisms that uses a series of paired descriptive statements. • Two-Part Names By working through the statements in a dichotomous key in order, a person can eventually identify an unknown organism.

  16. A Growing System • Still Discoveries to Make People are still discovering and classifying organisms. • Discovering Unique Organisms Sometimes new organisms are found that are so different from other known organisms that new classes, phyla, and so on must be formed.

  17. Domains • There are three domains • Archaea- Prokaryotes • Bacteria- Prokaryotes • Eukarya- Eukaryotes

  18. Prokaryote • A single celled or simple multicellular organism. The cell does not have a nucleus.

  19. Eukaryote • A single celled or multicelled organism that has a cell with a nucleus.

  20. Domain ArchaeaKingdom Archaebacteria • These organisms are single celled and live in extreme environments, such as the hot springs in Yellowstone National Park. • They may also live in the ocean.

  21. Domain BacteriaKingdom Eubacteria • These organisms are prokaryotes. They can be found in the human body, in soil, and in yogurt. They can cause diseases. E coli is present in the intestines and produces vitamin K. They can decompose dead matter and recycle the nutrients.

  22. Domain Eukarya • There are four kingdoms in this domain. • Animalia • Plantae • Protista • Fungi

  23. Kingdom Protista • These are simple multicellular organisms that scientist believe evolved from ancient bacteria over 2 billion years ago. They evolved to form plants, animals and fungi. Protists have some characterisitics of animals and some of plants. • The animal like protists are called protozoans. The plant like protists are called algae. Protists include slime molds and euglenoids.

  24. Euglenoids Euglenoids move by whipping their tails, called flagella. Euglenoids make their own food through photosynthesis. Euglenoids can also feed on other organisms.

  25. Kingdom Fungi • Mushrooms and molds are fungi. Unlike plants, they do not perform photosynthesis. They release digestive juices and absorb nutrients from their surroundings. They break down dead matter to recycle nutrients.

  26. Kingdom Plantae • These organisms perform photosynthesis and produce their own food using water, carbon dioxide, chlorophyll and sunlight to produce their own food. • They have cell walls. They are found where sunlight penetrates. They usually cannot move.

  27. Kingdom Animalia • They are complex, multicellular organisms. They can respond to their environment. They have specialized sense organs. They can usually move. They do not have cell walls. They are eukaryotes. • The red cup sponge is an animal. It cannot move but it also cannot perform photosynthesis.