Introduction to Accounting Information Systems
To appreciate the complex, dynamic environment in which accounting is practiced. To know the AIS, its relationship to the organizations business processes To know the attributes of information To understand decision making Recognize how information is used a various organizational levels Recognize how information supports management functions Appreciate the influence of strategic planning on success Understand the importance of the IS strategic plan To recognize the accountant’s role in relation to the current environment for AIS. To understand how to use this textbook effectively to learn AIS. Learning Objectives Introduction to Accounting Information Systems
The AIS Wheel • Introduces each chapter; topics are listed on spokes, hub and perimeter of wheel
Textbook Themes • Enterprise systems— integrate the business process functionality and information from all of an organization’s functional areas, such as marketing and sales, cash receipts, purchasing, cash disbursements, human resources, production and logistics, and business reporting (including financial reporting). • E-Business—use of networks to undertake business processes • Internal control— a system of integrated elements that provide reasonable assurance that a business will reach its business process goals
Accounting Systems and Subsystems • A system is a set of interdependent elements that together accomplish specific objectives. • A subsystem is the interrelated parts that have come together, or integrated, as a single system, which we have named System 1.0.
Information System Model • An information system (IS) (or management information system [MIS]) is a manmade system that generally consists of an integrated set of computer-based and manual components established to collect, store, and manage data and to provide output information to users. • The Figure on the next slide depicts the functional components of an information system.
Purpose of AIS • Collect, process and report information related to the financial aspects of business events • Often integrated and indistinguishable from overall information system • Like the IS, the AIS may be divided into components based on the operational functions supported.
Components of Business Process 1. Management hires personnel and establishes the means for accomplishing the work of the organization.
Components of Business Process 2. Management establishes broad marketing objectives and assigns sales quotas to measure progress toward the long-run objectives. Management also designs the IS procedures for facilitating operations, such as the procedures used to pick and ship goods to the customer.
Components of Business Process 3. The IS receives the customer’s purchase order.
Components of Business Process 4. The IS acknowledges the customer’s purchase order (send order acknowledgement).
Components of Business Process 5. The IS sends a request to ship goods to warehouse. This request identifies the goods and their location in the warehouse.
Components of Business Process 6. A document (i.e., a packing slip) identifying the customer and the goods is attached to the goods.
Components of Business Process 7. Goods are shipped to customer.
Components of Business Process 8. The shipping department reports to the IS that the goods have been shipped.
Components of Business Process 9. The IS prepares an invoice and sends it to the customer.
Components of Business Process 10. The IS sends management a report comparing actual sales to previously established sales quotas.
Management Decision Making 1. Intelligence: Searching the environment for conditions calling for a decision. 2. Design: Inventing, developing, and analyzing possible courses of action. 3. Choice: Selecting a course of action.
Horizontal information flows Strategic Management Vertical information flows TacticalManagement Operations Management Operations and Transaction Processing
Management Problem Structure and Information Requirements • Horizontal flows relate to specific business events, such as one shipment, or to individual inventory items. • the information moves through operational units such as sales, the warehouse, and accounting. • Vertical Flows relate to the flow of information to and from strategic management through tactical management, operations management, and operations and transaction processing
Management Problem Structure and Information Requirements • Higher up the pyramid, the less structured the decision • Less defined • External orientation • More summarized information • Future oriented • Less frequent • Less accurate • Lower down the pyramid, the more structured the decision • More defined • Internal orientation • More detailed information • Historical • More frequent • More accurate
The strategic planning process addresses such questions as: 1. What business are we in and who are our customers? 2. What knowledge advantage do we have in our business? 3. How should our products be perceived? 4. What rate of return on assets, earnings, or cash flow are we trying to achieve? 5. What are our social responsibilities?
Strategic Planning Process 1. Assess environment for opportunities or threats.
Strategic Planning Process 2. Assess the organization’s strength’s and weaknesses and develop objectives that match the strengths and weaknesses with opportunities in environment.
Strategic Planning Process 3. Derive the factors that are central to the accomplishment of the objectives and to the survival of the organization—the critical success factors.
Strategic Planning Process 4. Develop corporate strategy: A strategy is the means (organizational structure and processes) by which an organization has chosen to achieve its objectives and critical success factors.
Strategic Planning Process 5. Identify the performance indicatorsthat will demonstrate achievement of the organization’s strategies and critical success factors.
Accountant’s Role • Designer—application of accounting principles, auditing, information systems, and systems development • User—participate in design • Auditor—provide audit and assurance services
Chapter 3 Database Management Systems
Learning Objectives • To describe and analyze major approaches used to process data related to business events • To describe major business events in merchandising, service and manufacturing firms • To explain complexities and limitations of using traditional data management approaches • To recognize the advantages of using the database approach to data management • To be able to perform basic processes involved in database design and implementation
Event-Driven Approach • Raw data is captured as events occur. • Minimum data to be collected/stored: • Who • What • Where • When • Data can be aggregated to meet user requirements.
Overview of Order-to-Sales Process for a Merchandising or Manufacturing Firm FIGURE 3.1
Managing Data Files • Character • A basic unit of data (e.g., number) • Field • A collection of related characters (e.g., customer name) • Record • A collection of related data fields • File • A collection of related records
Data Maintenance: Add Customer Record FIGURE 3.3a
Data Maintenance: Add Customer Record (cont’d) FIGURE 3.3b
Database Approach to Data Management FIGURE 3.5b
Record Layouts Under an Applications Approach to Data Management FIGURE 3.6
The Database Approach • Decouples data from applications such that data are independent. • Database is shared by applications. • Data can be easily accessed by report generators. • Query programs must use a database management system (DBMS) and the operating system (OS).
Database Management Systems (DBMS) • A set of integrated programs designed to simplify the tasks of creating, accessing, and managing a database. • DBMS functions: • Defining the data. • Defining the relationships among data (e.g., whether the data structure is relational or object-oriented). • Interfacing with the operating system • Mapping each user’s view of the data (through subschema to schema).
Database Management Systems (DBMS) (cont’d) • Schema • A description of the configuration of record types and data items and the relationships among them. • Defines the logical structure of the database. • Defines the organizational view of the data. • Subschema • A description of a portion of a schema. • DBMS map each user’s view of the data from subschemas to the schema.
Schemas and Subschemas TI 3.1