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Palermo June 14, 2010 University of Palermo PowerPoint Presentation
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Palermo June 14, 2010 University of Palermo

Palermo June 14, 2010 University of Palermo

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Palermo June 14, 2010 University of Palermo

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  1. "MEDITERRANEAN MARITIME POLLUTION: THE ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING TO MONITOR AND MITIGATE" Prof. Goffredo La Loggia Head of the Department of Hydraulic Engineering and Environmental Applications University of Palermo - glal@idra.unipa.it MEDILAB - Remote sensing and Geographical Information System Lab Authors: Goffredo La Loggia, Fulvio Capodici, Giuseppe Ciraolo, Antonino Maltese Palermo June 14, 2010 University of Palermo

  2. The need of monitoring and mitigate maritime pollution • Human activities contaminate both coastal zone and open sea: • pollutants; • ecosystems; • recovery time. • Pollution monitoring and mitigation by integrating: • - remote sensing, • - hydrodynamic; • bio-optical modelling. • Coastal water pollution is strictly related to land activities: • ≈ 60% of world’s population lives within 60 km from the coastline impacting water quality. • Pesticides and fertilizers over-application: • - coastal zone algae growth; • - natural food chain alteration; • coastal waters oxygen deprivation. • Offshore pollution is related to maritime oil transport: • a quarter of the global maritime traffic; • causing ≈7% of the world oil accidents during the last 25 years; • biological impacts firstly on open sea than on coastal zone habitats.

  3. Water Bodies pollution monitoring and mitigation Offshore Coast, lagoon and lakes • Water quality • Toxic blooms • Submerged vegetation distribution and dynamic • Hydrodynamic and solute transport models • Water quality • Oil spill The Planktothrix rubescens bloom (Oscillatoria rubescens) in some Sicilian lakes. - The contamination of reservoirs used for civil and agricultural supply highlights human healthy risks - Spectral reflectance R(l) [-] of a typical Sicilian lake water (dashed line) and that of a water characterized by a Planktothrixrubescens algal bloom (continuous line).

  4. Water Bodies pollution monitoring and mitigation The Castellammare gulf The Augusta gulf The Gela gulf Offshore Coast, lagoon and lakes • Water quality • Toxic blooms • Submerged vegetation distribution and dynamic • Hydrodynamic and solute transport models • Water quality • Surface Clorophyll (Chl-a); • Total Sunspended Sediments (TSS) • Water Nephelometric Turbidity (NTU) • Oil spill CALIBRATION SITE, CALIBRATION PARAMETERS AND NTU (WATER TURBIDITY) MAP NTU July 2008 2D model (finite difference)

  5. Water Bodies pollution monitoring and mitigation Offshore Coast, lagoon and lakes • Water quality • Oil spill • Water quality • Toxic blooms • Submerged vegetation distribution and dynamic • Hydrodynamic and solute transport models The note deepens on the Oil spill issue reporting the MAPRES research project Marine pollution monitoring and detection by aerial surveillance and satellite images Recent accidents in the Mediterranean sea

  6. Effectsoflargespills\ • Vegetation • Animals • Economicactivities Oil spill pollution

  7. Principal oil spill events in Europe Oil Spill events

  8. Oil pollutions types Prestigie OPERATIVE ACCIDENTAL SYSTEMATIC • Tank washing • Bilge waters discharges • Ballast water discharges • Oil tanker accident • Pipeline break • Oil platform accident • Oil terminal accident • Industrial discharges

  9. Oil transportation

  10. Ship “Don Pedro” had been sailing from Ibiza to the eastern port city of Valencia when it hit rocks and sank Wednesday with 150 tons of fuel oil and 50 tons of gasoline on board Spain 13th July 2007

  11. Spain 13th July 2007 Three Ibiza beaches: Talamanca, Ses Figueretes and Platja de Bossa were closed while crews cleaned up the spill

  12. Il caso della “Prestige” (Novembre 2002) Direzione del vento Immagine ASAR (radar ad apertura sintetica) ENVISAT dell’ESA

  13. Oil slicks individuate tramite SAR Scarichi illeciti: numero di spills individuati nel 1999: 1638 per un totale di 13500 tn UNA APPLICAZIONE NEL CANALE DI SICILIA E’ STATA REALIZZATA NELL’AMBITO DEL PROGETTO MAPRES

  14. MAPRES rationale and general description

  15. MAPRES rationale and general description • The project has been implemented in the following Countries: • Italy, Republic of Malta, United Kingdom • The starting date was: January 2007 • The ending date was: December 2007 • Duration: 12 months

  16. MAPRES rationale and general description Remotely sensed data from: Active and Passive sensors OIL SPILL DETECTION Hydrodynamic Numerical Simulations OIL SPILL propagation forecasting Impact on coastal environment and best practices for mitigation and damage recovery OIL SPILL mitigations procedures Using guidelines coming from preceding tasks MAPRES exercise Expected result: Operating Manual

  17. OIL SPILL PROPAGATION FORECASTING CONISMA L.R.U. 1 “Dipartimento di Ingegneria Idraulica ed Applicazioni Ambientali (D.I.I.A.A.)” - University of Palermo (ITA) Scientific Coordinator:Prof. Enrico Napoli University of Malta (UOM) - International Ocean Institute –Malta Operational Centre (MT) Scientific Coordinator:Dr. Aldo Drago

  18. OIL SPILL PROPAGATION FORECASTING THE NEED • Use an operational system for predicting the fate and transportation of an oil spill in the Malta Channel • Develop coastal models to detail the areas around the Maltese Islands and Pozzallo • In case of emergency, oil spill models help to determine ... • where will the oil slick move to • when will it get there • what will be its state when it arrives

  19. OIL SPILL PROPAGATION FORECASTING Ocean satellite & in situ observations Oil spill characteristcs and conditions Data Assimilation Operational oil spill model Operational ocean model Regional/shelf/ coastal models nesting and downscaling Elaboration of fields Operational atmospheric forecasts Response MEDSLIK model The models solves the free-surface Reynolds and continuity equations in 3D

  20. OIL SPILL PROPAGATION FORECASTING NESTING 1st level: coarse grid, the Ocean General Circulation Model, operating on the whole Mediterranean Sea (resolution 1/8 degrees)

  21. OIL SPILL PROPAGATION FORECASTING NESTING 2nd level: the regional scale Circulation Model, operating on the Sicilian channel (resolution 1/32 degrees)

  22. OIL SPILL PROPAGATION FORECASTING NESTING 3rd level: the Rosario Shelf Model, operating on the Maltese channel (resolution 1/64 degrees)

  23. OIL SPILL PROPAGATION FORECASTING NESTING A novel level: the Coastal Model, operating with a 1/512 degrees resolution Malta Coastal Model Pozzallo Coastal Model

  24. The Malta Coastal Model Spatial resolution 1/512° x 1/512° 344 cells: E-W direction 280 cells: N-S direction 19 cells: depth The total number of cells is 1.926.400

  25. OIL SPILL PROPAGATION FORECASTING examples 61 hr simulation restarted at 25 hrs using Malta Shelf Model and the higher resolution Malta Coastal Model 61 hr simulation using the Malta Shelf Model

  26. OIL SPILL PROPAGATION FORECASTING examples Coastal Oil Distribution With Boom Coastal Oil Distribution No Boom

  27. THE MAPRES EXERCISE COMANDO GENERALE DEL CORPO DELLE CAPITANERIE DI PORTO Pozzallo and Catania sections THE VEGA 2007 EXERCISE C.V.(CP) Paolo Cafaro e del C.F. (CP) Marco Mancini

  28. THE MAPRES EXERCISE DATE : 28 E 29 NOVEMER 2007 PLACE: POZZALLO – PIATTAFORMA VEGA; ACTORS: - Coast Guard ships: CP 316 – CP 2113 - Coast Guard airplanes: ATR42 MP- “Manta 10-02”, Piaggio P166dl3-SEM “Orca 8-01”; Supply vessels: Ecol Roma and Kerob Express. SIMULATED SPILL: 10 tons od petrol (2 ton of “Rice Hull”) In Catania Coast Guard aerial base researchers analyzed the hydrodynamic simulation forecast and compared the results vs the acquired data. The position of the husk rice retrieved by means of remotely sensed data were compared to the simulations of the hydrodynamic forecast model.

  29. THE MAPRES EXERCISE ATR42

  30. MEDILAB Water Activities Pozzallo SIMULATION29th November 2007

  31. THE MAPRES EXERCISE

  32. "MEDITERRANEAN MARITIME POLLUTION: THE ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING TO MONITOR AND MITIGATE" Prof. Goffredo La Loggia Head of the Department of Hydraulic Engineering and Environmental Applications University of Palermo - glal@idra.unipa.it MEDILAB - Remote sensing and Geographical Information System Lab Thanks for your attention Authors: Goffredo La Loggia, Fulvio Capodici, Giuseppe Ciraolo, Antonino Maltese Palermo June 14, 2010 University of Palermo