Fall 2011 Cantor Retreat St. Thomas Aquinas Catholic Parish
Welcome • Morning Prayer (Lauds) • A welcome from the Reverend Father UcheObikwelu, Parochial Vicar of St. Thomas Aquinas Catholic Parish • Reflections • The Roman Missal, Third Edition • Closing Prayer and Blessing
Morning Prayer Today is August 28, 2011, the Memorial of St. Monica, mother of St. Augustine of Hippo.
Thank You • God has given you a voice; you now give it back as praise. • Your ministry is an essential part of the Sacred Liturgy. • Your service to the Church represents both amorand caritas.
Reflections “For God so loved the world that he gave his only Son, so that everyone who believes in him might not perish but might have eternal life.” (John 3:16)
Love • All love finds meaning in Christ. • All love must be rooted in Christ. • In Latin, there are two words that typically are translated to English as love: • Amor • Caritas
Amor • Love (Eros and Agape) is between two beings. • “Love of neighbor, grounded in the love of God, is first and foremost a responsibility for each individual member of the faithful...” • “…but it is also a responsibility for the entire ecclesial community.” (Benedict XVI, Deus Caritas Est) • Amor is selfless; “To love is to will the good of another.” (Catechism 1766).
Caritas • Caritas most closely means charity. • “The Church’s charitable activity is a manifestation of love.” (Benedict XVI, Deus Caritas Est) • Charity is a responsibility of the Church.
Caritas • Charity is selflessness. • It must go beyond dying to oneself because Christ must be the root of all love; “The charity of Christ is the source in us of all our merits before God.” (Catechism 2011). • Our actions must lead to the glory of God and to the building of His kingdom. • “Charity is the soul of the holiness to which all are called: it ‘governs, shapes, and perfects all the means of sanctification.’” (Catechism 826).
Cantareamantisest(St. Augustine) • He who sings praise does not only praise but also praises joyfully. • He who sings praise not only sings but also loves Him whom he is singing about. • The song of the lover is joyful praise to God. • The song itself becomes Love in its manifestation of love of the One who truly is Love itself.
Deus caritas est. (1 John 4:8) • Ubi caritas estvera, Deus ibi est. (from the Offertory of Maundy Thursday) • “Love of God and love of neighbor are thus inseparable, they form a single commandment. But both live from the love of God who has loved us first.” (Benedict XVI, Deus Caritas Est)
An Encounter with Amor and Caritas • How can we find the perfect combination of amor and caritas? • In whom can we find the perfect combination? • We find this in Christ, the Only-Begotten Son of God; we find Christ in the Mass, as the Word becomes Flesh for the life of the World.
Amor and Caritas • We see the love (amor) of Christ perpetuated in the Eucharistic Sacrifice, where he also humbly feeds us with love (caritas). • “The liturgy is the summit toward which the activity of the Church is directed; at the same time it is the fount from which all the Church’s power flows.” (SacrosanctumConcillium10)
Actio Christi et Ecclesiae • Mass is offered by the Priest, who is in the person of Christ, with the prayers of the entire Church, through the Holy Spirit to God the Father. • Teigitur, clementissime Pater, per Iesum Christum FiliumtuumDominum nostrum, supplicesrogamus, ac petimus…(opening of the Roman Canon) • Christ brings us to the Father.
Why Do We Sing? • From Sing to the Lord, Music in Divine Worship (2007): • God is present when we sing His praises. • A cry from deep within our being, music is a way for God to lead us to the realm of higher things. • God’s urging; see Deuteronomy 31:19. • Jesus and his apostles sang a hymn before their journey to the Mount of Olives. • The common, sung expression of faith within liturgical celebrations strengthens our faith when it grows weak and draws us into the divinely inspired.
Why Do We Sing? • Continued: • Sacramental presence of God in the Liturgy. • The canticle of the victory of Christ over death. • It is the voice of the Church at prayer. • Inspired by sung participation, the body of the Word Incarnate goes forth to spread the Gospel with full force and compassion.
Our Role as Musicians • To be holy; “You shall be holy, because I am holy.” (Leviticus 11:45; Leviticus 19:2; 1 Peter 1:15) • To seek the Lord where He may be found – the Eucharist at the Sacrifice of the Mass. • To be caritas and amor to the people of Christ.
Our Role as Musicians • To promote the “glory of God and the sanctification and edification of the faithful.” (Pius X, Tra le sollecitudini) • To understand our role and grow in it. • To allow our role to lead us closer to Christ.
An Integral Part of the Liturgy • “The musical tradition of the universal Church is a treasure of inestimable value, greater even that that of any other art. The main reason for this preeminence is that, as sacred song closely bound to the text, it forms a necessary or integral part of the solemn liturgy.” (SacrosanctumConcillium 112) • “A liturgical service takes on a nobler aspect when the rites are celebrated with singing.” (SacrosanctumConcillium 113)
The Joy of the Liturgy • “If you keep my commandments, you will remain in my love, just as I have kept my Father’s commandments and remain in his love. I have told you this so that my joy may be in you and your joy may be complete.” (John 15:10-11)
The Joy of the Liturgy • What is the commandment of Christ? • “I have given you a model to follow, so that as I have done for you, you should also do.” (John 13:15) • How is our joy complete? • “This is my body that is for you. Do this in remembrance of me.” (1 Corinthians 11:24)
How Are We Seen? • The Eucharist is a joyful encounter; see “I Received the Living God” by Proulx. • The assembled faithful perceive our joy. • Our joy must echo our steadfastness to the faith. • “Behold what you are; become what you receive.” (St. Augustine) • When serving, our joy and inner spirituality become transparent.
How does music enhance the Sacred Liturgy? We must remember that Christ is the focus.
Discovering Who We Are • At baptism, we are all anointed: • Priest; “The laity…are marvelously called and prepared that even richer fruits of the Spirit may be produced in them.” (Catechism 901) • Prophet; “[Christ] establishes [the laity] as witnesses and provides them with the sense of faith and the grace of the word.” (Catechism 904) • King; “By his obedience unto death, Christ communicated to his disciples the gift of royal freedom.” (Catechism 908)
Discovering Who We Are • “The laity can also feel called, or be in fact called, to cooperate with their pastors in the service of the ecclesial community, for the sake of its growth and life. This can be done through the exercise of different kinds of ministries according to the graces and charisms which the Lord has been pleased to bestow on them.” (Catechism 910)
What’s to Gain? • By exercising our ministry through the graces God provides, we gain a glimpse of the eternal kingdom. • Our own faith is realized and affirmed. • The joy of this reality transforms others, helping them to realize their faith. • We appreciate what God has done for us.
God’s Gifts • God has graciously bestowed gifts. • We are to use them to serve (caritas) with love (amor); see “Go Make of All Disciples” by Adkins. • We must develop these gifts and put them to good use. • As God is the giver of gifts, others use our gifts to be brought to God; see the proof from aesthetics.
Humility • With such gifts comes tremendous responsibility. • Though we serve in an important role, we must approach with humble and contrite heart. • May we approach as the psalmist: “See; I come with an inscribed scroll written upon me. I delight to do your will, my God; your law is in my inner being!” (Psalm 40:8-9)
Questions for Reflection • How do can I grow in my role as a cantor? • How can I allow my role in the liturgy to lead me closer to Christ? • Am I using the gifts God has given me to love him with all my heart, all my being, and all my strength?(Deuteronomy 6:5)
The Roman Missal, Third Edition New Words: A Deeper Meaning, but the Same Mass.
Change Happens • Change is a part of the human experience. • Change can be for the better. • Change can be for the worse. • Many times, the consequences of change depend on our own self-awareness and openness.
Real Changes to the Sacred Liturgy • There are some real and important changes coming to the Sacred Liturgy this fall. • What will we make of them?
What Is Changing? • New prayers have been composed. • Prefaces • Blessings • Votive Masses • Masses for Various Needs and Intentions • New Saints • Etc.
What Is Changing? • In addition, there are more positive changes coming: • Connections to Scripture are clearer. • The style will be more formal to remind ourselves that we are address God. • The vocabulary will be more poetic and concrete. • The translation is more theologically rich. • The linguistic connection to Catholics around the entire world is enhanced. • This is a time for catechesis and liturgical renewal – brick by brick.
What Isn’t Changing? • Mass in the Ordinary Form, Novus Ordo, is not changing: • There are no ritual (posture, attitude) changes. • The theology (sacrifice, banquet) is the same. • The timing of liturgical music and the importance is not changing.
Why a New Roman Missal? • We first need to understand the history of the Mass. • We don’t know everything about the Mass of the apostles. • After the Edict of Milan (312) the Mass was the subject of Roman honor and ceremony. The liturgical language slowly became Latin.
History of the Mass • Slowly the Mass takes shape: • Kyrie Eleisonlitany (5th century) • Insertion of the Lord’s Prayer before the breaking of the bread • Gloria in excelsis(6th century) • Agnus Dei (7th century) • The Roman Rite spread at the command of Charlemagne while also ending the oral tradition (9th century) in the liturgical domain.
History of the Mass • Abuses arise: • By 1100, the chalice was no longer offered to the laity at Communion. • By 1200, the offertory procession had fallen out of practice. • Pius V promulgated (1570) the Missal that became obligatory for use throughout the Latin Church. Effects include: • Centralization of authority • Emphasis on rubrics
From Vatican II to Today • There have several important developments: • SacrosanctumConcillium(1963) • SacramLiturgiam(1964) • Comme le Prevoit(1969) • Sacramentary (1969); English first edition published (1974)
LiturgiamAuthenticam(2001) • Document provides new guidelines for the translation of liturgical texts. • The Church demands clear articulation of her faith – lexorandi, lexcredendi.
Development of the New English Translation • Objective is to maintain the characteristics of the Latin prayers: • Using inversion – ending on a strong note • Emphasizing Biblical references and images • Keeping the allusions to the Patristic Writings • Using concrete, poetic images • Choosing exactness in vocabulary • A noble, formal tone • The Bishops have adopted the motto “New Words: A Deeper Meaning, but the Same Mass.”
A Look at Some of the Changes “The translation of the liturgical texts of the Roman Liturgy is not so much a work of creative innovation as it is of rendering the original texts faithfully and accurately into the vernacular language.” (LiturgiamAuthenticam 20)
Entrance Chant ICEL “Lame-Duck” 2010 ICEL In the Dioceses of the United States of America, there are four options for the Entrance Chant: (1) the antiphon from the Missal or the antiphon with its Psalm from the Gradual Romanum, as set to music there or in another setting; (2) the antiphon and Psalm of the Graduate Simplex for the liturgical time; (3) a chant from another collection of Psalms and antiphons, approved by the Conference of Bishops or the Diocesan Bishop, including Psalms arranged in responsorial or metrical forms; (4) another liturgical chant that is suited to the sacred action, the day, or the time of year, similarly approved by the Conference of Bishops or the Diocesan Bishop. • In the dioceses of the United States of America there are four options for the Entrance Chant: (1) the antiphon from the Roman Missal or the Psalm from the Roman Gradual as set to music there or in another musical setting; (2) the seasonal antiphon and Psalm of the Simple Gradual; (3) a song from another collection of psalms and antiphons, approved by the Conference of Bishops or the Diocesan Bishop, including psalms arranged in responsorial or metrical forms; (4) a suitable liturgical song similarly approved by the Conference of Bishops or the Diocesan Bishop.
Introductory Rite ICEL “Lame-Duck” 2010 ICEL In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. Amen. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the communion of the Holy Spirit be with you all. And with your spirit. • In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. Amen. • The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all. And also with you.
And with Your Spirit • It is a more correct rendering of et cum spiritutuo. • English is the only major language of the Roman Rite which did not translate the word spiritu. • It recalls St. Paul's blessing to Timothy (“The Lord be with your spirit.” 2 Timothy 4:22) and to the Galatians (“The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit.” Galations 6:18). • The expression et cum spiritutuois only addressed to an ordained minister.
Deeper Meaning • Spiriturefers to the gift of the Spirit received at ordination. • The assembly assures the priest of the same divine assistance of God’s spirit and, more specifically, help for the priest to use the charismatic gifts given to him. • It does not suggest that the priest is any holier than the assembly. But the Priest is stilling acting in persona Christi. • It “expresses a prayer that the ordained may be made worthy of the dignity of their divine calling.” (Father Neil J. Roy)
Confiteor ICEL “Lame-Duck” 2010 ICEL I confess to almighty God and to you, my brothers and sisters, that I have greatly sinned, in my thoughts and in my words, in what I have done and in what I have failed to do, [And, striking their breast, they say:] through my fault, through my fault, through my most grievous fault; therefore I ask blessed Mary ever-Virgin… • I confess to almighty God and to you, my brothers and sisters, that I have sinned through my own fault in my thoughts and in my words, in what I have done and in what I have failed to do; and I ask blessed Mary ever-Virgin…
Gloria ICEL “Lame-Duck” 2010 ICEL Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace to people of good will. We praise you, we bless you, we adore you, we glorify you, we give you thanks for your great glory, Lord God, heavenly King, O God, almighty Father. Lord Jesus Christ, Only Begotten Son, Lord God, Lamb of God, Son of the Father, you take away the sins of the world, have mercy on us… • Glory to God in the highest and peace to his people on earth. Lord God, heavenly King, almighty God and Father, we worship you, we give you thanks, we praise you for your glory. Lord Jesus Christ, only Son of the Father, Lord God, Lamb of God, you take away the sin of the world: have mercy on us…