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  1. PSYCHOLOGYMeyers (7th Ed) Prologue: The Story of Psychology

  2. Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology • Is the mind connected to the body or distinct? • Are ideas inborn or is the mind a blank slate filled by experience?

  3. Lab - Pendulum • Ouija board (ideamotor) effect • phenomenon wherein a subject makes motions unconsciously • tears • hot stove • sleepwalkers who respond to environment • AND….Ouija boards •

  4. Psychology’s Roots

  5. Psychology’s Roots Psychological Science Is Born Empiricism • Knowledge comes from experience via the senses • Science flourishes through observation and experiment • Philosophical issues become psychological when tested empirically

  6. Psychology before the 20th century Aristotle • He takes psychology to be the branch of science which investigates the soul and its properties. Locke • first philosopher to define the self through a continuity of "consciousness” • Tabula rasa “blank slate”

  7. 19th Century Research Findings Helmholtz • sensory physiology Weber • one of father’s of sociology, wrote about religion and society Fechner • proved the existence of a scientific connection between the body and the mind

  8. Psychology’s Roots • Wilhelm Wundt opened the first psychology laboratory at the University of Liepzig (c. 1879)

  9. Psychology’s Roots • A Nebraska and LHS Connection - tada! • Activity - spin

  10. The Real H.K. Wolfe • 3 of his undergrad students became Presidents of APA • attended UN-L - emphasis in Philosophy • after graduation, taught public school for 3 years in Edgar NE • 1883 enrolled in University of Berlin and took courses in emerging science of Psych with Ebbinghaus • 1884 went to Liepzig to study with Wundt

  11. The Prodigal Son Returns… • 1889 - comes back to Lincoln with new wife (a doctor) and starts teaching UN-L as sole member of Philosophy dept. • added two new courses in experimental psych and begins building a lab • 1895 fired for encouraging students to challenge authority • by the next day, over 1,000 signatures collected by students in a petition

  12. was not re-instated • after a year without work accepted a position as supt. of Omaha schools - created many reforms • rocked the boat again - funding not supported and finally left to return to Lincoln where he Became Principal at LHS!!!!

  13. Wolfe’s time at LHS1902-1905 • 1200 students in a building built for 800 • behavior/discipling problems were rampant • instituted a system of self-government for students and mandated after school work for struggling students • After 3 years, offered Psych position at University of Montana • after 2 semesters, offered Ed. Psych job at UN-L

  14. Psychology’s Roots • Structuralism used introspection (looking in) to explore the elemental structure of the human mind - E.B. Titchener

  15. Gestalt Psychology - developed as a reaction to structuralism • The whole is different from the sum of its parts. • A school of thought that looks at the human mind and behavior as a whole. • Integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.

  16. Gestalt Psychology What is this?

  17. What do you see?

  18. Now what do you see?

  19. Hmmm…

  20. Psychology’s Roots • Functionalism focused on how behavioral processes function- how they enable organism to adapt, survive, and flourish - Willliam James

  21. Psychology’s Roots Psychological Science Develops • Wundt--German philosopher and physiologist • Tichener - English, Wundt’s student Structionalism • James--American philosopher, First American psychologist, Author of first psychology textbook, founder of functionalism • Pavlov--Russian physiologist • Freud--Austrian physician • Piaget--Swiss biologist

  22. Psychology’s Roots Figure 1- British Psychological Society membership Extra Credit: How many member in APA? (cite source)

  23. Psychology’s Roots • Definition of Psychology (big Kahuna of a definition - memorize it!) The scientific study of behavior and mental processes • Uses scientific research methods. • Behavior includes all observable behavior. • Mental processes include thoughts, feelings and dreams.

  24. Contemporary Psychology Psychology’s Big Issues • Nature-nurture controversy • the relative contribution that genes and experience make to development of psychological traits and behaviors Activity - continuum

  25. Contemporary Psychology • Natural selection • principle that those inherited trait variations contributing to survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations

  26. Contemporary Psychology Psychology’s Perspective - A lot depends on your viewpoint

  27. Six Contemporary Psychological Perspectives Module 1: Introduction, History, Perspectives, and Careers

  28. Six Contemporary Psychological Perspectives Module 1: Introduction, History, Perspectives, and Careers

  29. Psychological Perspectives • Method of classifying a collection of ideas • Also called “schools of thought” • Also called “psychological approaches” • To view behavior from a particular perspective

  30. 1. Cognitive Perspective • Focus: On how people think and process information • Behavior is explained by how a person interprets the situation

  31. 2. Biological Perspective • Focus: How our biological structures and substances underlie a given behavior, thought, or emotion • Behavior is explained by brain chemistry, genetics, glands, etc.

  32. 3. Social-Cultural Perspective • Focus: How thinking and behavior change depending on the setting or situation • Behavior is explained by the influence of other people present

  33. 4. Behavioral Perspective • Focus: How we learn through rewards, punishments, and observation • Behavior is explained by previous learning

  34. 5. Humanistic Perspective • Focus: How healthy people strive to reach their full potential • Behavior is explained as being motivated by satisfying needs (safety, hunger, thirst, etc.), with the goal of reaching one’s full potential once basic needs are met.

  35. Psychodynamic Perspective(psychoanalysis) • Focus: How behavior is affected by unconscious drives and conflicts • Behavior is explained through unconscious motivation and unresolved inner conflicts from one’s childhood. • Modern version of psychoanalytic perspective.

  36. Contemporary Psychology Psychology’s Subfields Basic Research • Biological psychologists explore the links between brain and mind • Developmental psychologists study changing abilities from womb to tomb • Cognitive psychologists study how we perceive, think, and solve problems