Media-Specific Disinfection Surfaces and Air
Legal Issues 1) It is a violation of Federal law to use an EPA registered product in a manner inconsistent with its labeling. • Solution strength must be according to label • Applications must be on the label 2) It is a violation of Federal law for a manufacturer to make real or implied claims for efficacy against organisms which are not on the label. • Creates problems when we encounter: • FMDV • Anthrax • Norwalk • SARS • Avian Influenza H5N1
Surface Disinfection • Surface Disinfection = Inactivation in Place • Surface Cleaning = Removal of Contaminants • Commercial products frequently combine disinfection and cleaning. • Some disinfectants have cleaning properties • Recommendation (at least in clinical settings) clean with disinfectant to avoid spreading contamination Pre-Disinfect Clean Disinfect
Surfaces • What surfaces might you need to disinfect? • Household Surfaces • Food and Food Prep Surfaces • Clinical Surfaces • Laboratory • Industrial • Farm • Other???
Concerns for Disinfection of Surfaces • Disinfectant Type/Concentration/Formulation • Contact Time • Type of Organisms/Level of Disinfection • Corrosivity and Other Surface Damage • Toxicity/Residual Toxicity • Other Residues • Odor • Type of Application and Rate
Concerns for Disinfection of Surfaces • pH • Demand and Interfering Substances • Temperature • Water hardness • Soil load • Biofilm presence • Surface microtopography • Precleaning • Relative humidity • Compatibility • Storage of Product/Product age *In practice, the contaminating microorganisms are not usually known.
Farm Surfaces • Virkon S (potassium peroxymonosulfate) • Nolvasan S (chlorhexidine diacetate) • Bleach (sodium hypochlorite) • Spectrasol (quat) • Alcohols (ethanol and Isopropanol, 70-95%) • Roccal D (quats with bis-n-tributylin oxide)
Surface Disinfection • In study by CRA Foundation • 54 clinical surface disinfectants tested against TB and Polio with and without presence of Blood • 7 passed: • Household Chlorox (50:50) • Industrial Chlorox (50:50) • Biosurf • Lysol I.C. • Lysol II Spray • Indi-wipes with Lysol
Ozone Surface Disinfection • Up to 14 PPM Ozone @ 10GPM • Onboard Ozone Analyzer With Alarms • Exclusive Off-Gassing System • Spray, Mist and Fog Applicators; Spray Arches Available • Advertises a 3 Log Kill on First Application
UV Surface Disinfection • Conveyor Belts • Food Prep Surfaces • Laboratory and Clinical Surfaces • Sterilization of Packaging • Mail Systems
Chemical disinfection of Indoor Air • Spraying • relatively large particles, which have a higher wetting capacity, but stay in the air for less time • Misting • smaller particles that have increased penetration and uniformity • Fumigation • combination of 2 or more chemicals producing a vaporised form of the disinfectant • Thermal Fogging • similar to misting but involving heating of the disinfectant to produce a fine vapour
Chemical Disinfectants of Air • Chlorine Dioxide • Ozone • VHP • Formaldehyde • Gluteraldehydes • Quat mixtures • Virkon (peroxy compound) • Sporocidin (phenolic)
Air Disinfection • Chemical Disinfection • Spray, mist, fog, fumigation • UVGI • Ionization/Electrostatic Precipitation • Only one that removes • Photocatalytic oxidation
UV Air Disinfection • Forced Air or HVAC Duct Systems • Full Air Systems • Upper Air Systems • Re-circulating Systems • Microbial Growth Control • On Filter Surfaces
UV Air Disinfection: Duct Systems • Integrated in to HVAC System
UV Air Disinfection: Upper Air • Originally designed for TB sanitariums