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  1. Transitional Jobs: Giving Everyone the Opportunity to Succeed in WorkEmploying Transitional Jobs as a Workforce Strategy for Disconnected and Court-Involved Youth

  2. History Of Transitional Jobs 1930’s:Works Progress Administration – provided jobs and income to unemployed during depression. At peak – 3.3 million people provided work each month through program. 1970s: • Public Service Employment Program - created 150,000 transitional jobs for unemployed favoring veterans, those with little or no job training, and unskilled youth. • CETA programs that created subsidized jobs in public and nonprofit sectors. • National Supported Work Demonstration – provided individuals with severe employment problems with work experience of a year or so, under close supervision and gradually increasing demands.

  3. History Of Transitional Jobs, Continued 2009: • Today, Transitional Jobs programs serve all people with barriers to employment – TANF recipients, people with criminal records, youth, people experiencing homelessness, public housing residents, veterans & refugees. • There are programs in over 30 states

  4. What is Transitional Jobs: Definition Transitional Jobs (TJ) is a workforce strategy designed to overcome employment obstacles by using time-limited, wage-paying jobs that combine real work, skill development, and supportive services, to transition participants successfully into the labor market.

  5. TJ Definition Break Down:“Time-limited, Wage-paying Jobs” • Subsidized jobs in a non-profit,for profit, and/or government setting • Time-limited. The TJ typically lasts 3-9 months depending upon the population & participant needs • Wage-paid

  6. TJ Definition Break Down: “Skill Development” • TJ programs offer the opportunity to learn and re-learn behaviors of work • Soft-skill Development sometimes combined with Hard-skill Development • Access to industry specific training, bridge programs, and educational opportunities

  7. TJ Definition Break Down:“Supportive Services” • TJ programs have a strong employment case management structure and wrap-around support with linkages to the following: TransportationChild Care Clothing Housing Substance AbuseMental Health Probation/Parole Requirements

  8. TJ Definition Break Down: “Transition participants successfully into the labor market” • Transition TJ participants into unsubsidized work in nonprofit or for profit job site following TJ placement. • Retention Support • Linkages to education & training

  9. TJ Definition Break Down:What does it mean? The premise of Transitional Jobs programs is that everyone can work. TJ is a stepping stone out of poverty for populations with barriers to employment. Transitional Jobs programs offer experiential workplace learning so participants can: • gain on-the-job success • build work history • increase stability at a job • increase soft and hard job skills

  10. Transitional Jobs Program Elements • Orientation & Assessment • Job Readiness/Life Skills Classes • Case Management Support • Transitional Job - Real Work Experience • Unsubsidized Job Placement & Retention • Linkages to Education and Training

  11. Transitional Jobs Program Elements:Orientation and Assessment Goal is to assess needs in the following areas: • Academic skills • Vocational goals and interests • Employment experience • Counseling requirements • Non-employment system commitments • Drug testing – to identify not exclude

  12. Transitional Jobs Program Elements:Job Readiness/Life Skills Classes Goal is to prepare participants for success in both subsidized and unsubsidized work: • Resume writing • Employment application • Interview skills • Budgeting a paycheck • Review income supports • Basic financial literacy • Goals/next steps

  13. Transitional Jobs Program Elements:Case ManagementSupport & Linkages Goal is to manage barriers and support life skills development: • Work-focused, individual career and service plan • Ongoing counseling to succeed in work • Linkages to supports: • Childcare • Healthcare • Stable housing • Transportation • Complying with parole or probation • ESL/GED/Vocational Training

  14. Transitional Jobs Program Elements:Transitional Job Goal is to provide real work experience supported with wages: • Lasts 3-9 months (typically 3-4 months) • Work 20-35 hours per week • Wage is usually state or Federal minimum wage • There is weekly review of job performance reports • Support to manage barriers

  15. Transitional Jobs Program Elements:Unsubsidized Job Placement Goal is to assist TJ participant in finding and unsubsidized job placement: • Work with Job Development staff while in TJ • Job retention services—best practice is at least 6 months of follow-up including participant incentives • For-profit employers typically agree to hire participants once the Transitional Job is complete

  16. Outcomes of Transitional Jobs Programs • TJ participants are more likely to be employed and stay employed following TJ.72% of Community Jobs (TJ) participants found gainful employment. 92% of Transitional Work Corporation participants found gainful employment. On average a TJ participants show a 20% higher rate of employment and 17% increase in job retention as compared to those not in TJ. • TJ participants show increased wages and less reliance on public benefits over time. Average income of post-TJ workers increased 60% during first two years in the workforce and is 148% higher than pre-TJ income. • Dramatic reductions in recidivism for persons engaged in TJ programs within 90 days of release. MDRC study shows 50% reduction in recidivism for those persons engaged in TJ program within 90 days of release.

  17. Why Transitional Jobs for Youth? • Many youth are not prepared to succeed in today’s workplace or the workforce of the future: • 30% of young people who enter public high school do not graduate four years later. • Unemployment rate is much higher than overall jobs market—and currently at an all-time high since record-keeping began in 1948 • Graduation rate for African American and Native American youth is only 50%

  18. Why Transitional Jobs for Youth? continued • Disconnected youth face many barriers to entering and succeeding in the workforce: • Incomplete education • Lack of work experience and references • Unclear career direction • Unstable housing • Overwhelming personal and family circumstances

  19. TJ Provides Necessary Work Experience for Disconnected Youth • The transitional work component of TJ builds a work history and develops solid work references. • Employers are more likely to hire individuals with prior work experience and references • Establishes an experiential base from which youth can make a successful transition into the regular workforce.

  20. Transitional Jobs for Youth—Program Example • Roca, Boston • Youth development organization serving disenfranchised and disengaged young people ages 14-24--street/court/gang involved; drop-outs; young parents; and refugees & immigrants • Operates social enterprise providing TJ work experience in painting & maintenance • Currently has 28 TJ slots employing about 120 youth per year; plans to offer 45-50 slots • 65% of 101 young people who completed the Transitional Employment Program over a two year period were successfully placed in unsubsidized employment

  21. Transitional Jobs for Youth—Program Example • Center for Employment Opportunities (CEO) Young Adult Program • CEO provides Transitional Jobs to formerly incarcerated people in New York City—in the last decade CEO has placed over 10,000 people in unsubsidized permanent employment • CEO’s Young Adult Program focuses on formerly incarcerated young adults age 18-25. • Young Adult participants work fewer hours and receive more intensive supportive services than CEO’s general program, and participate in specialized young adult programming based in part on Roca’s model • Young Adult Program participants are 1.4 times more likely to be placed in a job than people in the same age group in CEO’s regular program

  22. Transitional Jobs Program Structures • Scattered Site – Participants work in for-profit, non-profit or government sites with 1-2 workers per site.(Examples: Heartland Human Care Services, TWC, GA Goodworks and WA Community Jobs) • Work Crew –Crews of 5-7 people work on a project often within maintenance, janitorial, parks, and community renewal projects.(Examples: CEO, Roca, Doe Fund) • Social Enterprise – Participants work as an employee of the product or service revenue generating arm of an organization.(Examples: Sweet Beginnings, Circle Catering, Goodwill)

  23. TJ Program Structures: Individual Placement / Scattered Site

  24. TJ Program Structure:Work Crews

  25. TJ Program Structure: Social Enterprises

  26. Engaging Employers • Build/leverage community relationships; e.g. Chamber of Commerce, Rotary, informal networks • Emphasize the training, experience and supports TJ graduates receive—soft skills, coaching & case management, retention supports • Work Opportunity Tax Credit (WOTC) and other incentives for hiring—WOTC offers incentives for both youth and formerly incarcerated • Community Benefit—”Giving Back;” identify employers who “buy in” to social mission—they are out there!

  27. Snapshot of General TJ Program Staff • Case Management Team – Intake/Assessment, Counseling, Referral Services • Job Development Team – Job Coach, Job Developer, Crew Supervisor • Job/Life Skills Trainers • Retention Specialist • Education/Training Specialist

  28. Budget Considerations for TJ Program Planning • Participant Wages • Staff • Training and Education • Support Services • Incentives • Data Collection and Evaluation • Administrative Costs

  29. NTJN Role & Services The NTJN exists to influence audiences to ensure that policies account for the hard-to-employ, that the public understands the need to invest in these services, that programs are able to effectively serve as many individuals as possible, and that best practices and technical assistance are widely shared and implemented throughout the network. • Technical Assistance • State and Federal Advocacy • Monthly Newsletters • National Conference

  30. For more information, contact:ntjn@heartlandalliance.orgor