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Energy Generation via Existing Water Flow

Energy Generation via Existing Water Flow

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Energy Generation via Existing Water Flow

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  1. Energy Generation via Existing Water Flow By: Cathy Chwastek , John Martino, Nikita Byalsky , and Henry Blum

  2. What will be discussed: • Problem Background • Potential solutions • Our proposed solution • Assumptions/Concerns • Recommendations for Future Work • References • Q & A

  3. Growing Concerns: • Fossil fuels are depleting. • 35.2% of world’s power derived from oil. • Oil prices soaring. • Estimated $4.00 per gallon. • Need for renewable energy sources. • Another finite solution will eventually lead to the same problem. Industrial Ecology, Second Edition

  4. Adapting New Ideas: • Earth-friendly energy sources. • Environmental standpoint. • Few solutions utilize resources naturally consumed every day. • “From thin air” • Inexpensive • Bringing it all together.

  5. Current Sources: http://wolf.readinglitho.co.uk/mainpages/altenergy.html

  6. Alternatives • Solar Panels • Windmills • Exercise Bikes www.dbrooke.org.uk www.newmediaexplorer.org www.engadget.com

  7. Hydro Power • Generate energy via turbines in water pipes • Utilizing existing water flow • Currently untapped resource • Same concept as water dams but on a smaller scale www.originenergy.com.au/?pageid=1710

  8. Pelton Turbine • High efficiency of 80-90% • High water pressure from the main water line • Turbine can act as a pressure regulator www.waterwheelfactory.com/Turbine/

  9. System Diagram

  10. Venturi Effect • Pressure will drop significantly; Venturi effect will be implemented http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu • Piping will narrow thus causing the Venturi effect which will cause a suction to occur and pull the water through the pipes

  11. Equations • Power P= ½ ρQv2 • Density ρ = 1g/cm3 = 1000kg/m3 • Volume flow rate Q = A * v = πr2 * v • P = ½ ρAv3 = ½ ρπr2v3 • Static pressure p = 50psi = 344.74kPa • Velocity v = √(2*p / ρ)

  12. P = ½ ρπr2(2p/ρ)3/2 • ρ = 1000kg/m3, p = 344.74kPa, r = 2in = .0508m • P =½(1000kg/m3)π(.0508m)2(2(344.74*103Pa)/(1000kg/m3))3/2 • P = 7.34*104 Watts = 7.34*104 Joules/second • 80% efficiency = 58.72kW

  13. Cost • 20 floors * 10 apartments/floor * 300 gallons/apartment = 60,000 gal • $1500-2000 per turbine • $0.0986/kWh electricity • kWh is (1000 J/s)*(3600 s) = 3,600,000 J • Q = 56.237 gal/s • 58,720 J/s / 56.237 gal/s = 1044 J/gal • 1044 J/gal * 60,000 gal = 62,640,000 J in a day per apartment • 62,640,000 J /3,600,000 J = 17.4 kWh • 17.4 kWh * $0.0986/kWh = $1.72 • $2000 / $1.72/day = 1162 days • 1162 days / 365 days/year =3.2 years US average March 2006

  14. Assumptions • Efficiency estimation • Pressure loss • Pricing Estimation (www.canyonhydro.com) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/b/bf/Water_Turbine_Chart.png

  15. Ethical/Environmental Concerns • Infection of water • Cleaning of turbine before use • Using materials that will not affect the water • Recycling the turbine after use

  16. Recommendations for Future Work • Areas of Focus for Improvement • Individual parts: • AC electrical power generator • Turbine • Materials • Adapting for Alternate Scenarios • Houses • Factories • Office complexes • Stadiums

  17. Recommendations for Future Work • Areas of Focus for Investigation • Improved Design for Maintenance • Goal: Ability to perform maintenance without turning off water or dismantle plumbing • Backup Power Infrastructure • Inspiration: Although blackouts occur, the water distribution system is able to continue to provide water • Goal: During a blackout, provide electrical power from water system, at least for critical power needs (e.g. elevators, security systems, etc.)

  18. References • http://www.waterwheelfactory.com/Pelton.htm • http://www.du.edu/~jcalvert/tech/fluids/turbine.htm • http://www.aspe.org/xcart/product.php?productid=70 • http://home.honolulu.hawaii.edu/~jkemmler/chapter2.htm • http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/bernouilli-equation-d_183.html • http://michaelbluejay.com/electricity/cost.html • http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/fluids/imgflu/venturi.gif • www.originenergy.com.au/?pageid=1710

  19. Thank You!This presentation made possible by: Dr. Wan Y Shih, Dr. Todd Doehring, and Richard Rajauski. Thank you for your aid and support.

  20. Q & A