The American Civil War Created by Alberto Guajardo Lamar Bruni Vergara Middle School
The Industrial Revolution • In Massachusetts, Francis Cabot Lowell built water or steam powered factories. • Production of products increased and prices dropped. • Eli Whitney contributed by developing in standardizing of parts by making them interchangeable. • 1840 railroad lines criss-crossed parts of America, most important was New York Central which ran parallel to the Erie Canal. • 1844 Samuel Morse invented the telegraph which created faster communication.
Sectionalism North • 1st area to become industrialized • Center for manufacturing and shipping • People worked in large workshops or factories which led to a population increase. • People became wealthier, middle class began to grow • New opportunities for merchants, bankers, managers, foremen, sales clerks and professionals • Women and children worked in the factories to meet the needs of the family West • Manifest Destiny • Availability of cheap land and construction of national roads and canals opened the region to settlers • The west became the new “Bread Basket” • Farmers used machines like the mechanical plow, reaper and thrasher to produce grains, like wheat and corn. • West had abundant timber, gold, silver, grazing land, and fertile soil. • The removal of the Native Americans made accelerated westward expansion • South • The Plantation System • Large farms cultivated cash crops like cotton, rice, tobacco and indigo through the use of Slavery • With an over-emphasis of cultivating cash crops, the south ignored improvements like industry and transportation • The south fell behind in railroads, factories and technologies • 1792 Eli Whitney invented the Cotton Gin, which did the work of 50 slaves. • “King Cotton” • The south had to satisfy the demand for cotton from the Northern factories and from England. • Demand for slavery increased
Age of Reform Second Great Awakening • Protestant groups held outdoor religious services and emphasized salvation. • These religious groups saw social reform as part of God’s Plan. • They focused on repairing moral injustices. • The Second Great Awakening played in important role in stirring reform movements to end Slavery, reform prisons, and ban alcoholic beverages. Literature • Ralf Waldo Emerson “Transcendentalism” • People were born with an inborn guide or conscience which allowed them to recognize moral truth. • 1848 Henry David Thoreau (student of Emerson) spoke out on Civil Disobedience, it was the duty of citizens to disobey unjust government policies. • Other American authors emerged borrowing from the ideas of transcendentalism: Nathanial Hawthorn, Herman Melville, Washington Irving, James Fennimore Cooper and Edgar Allen Poe.
Slavery • Reformers who believed slavery was morally wrong sought to bring an end to it. They were known as Abolitionists. • 1833 - The British Empire had abolished slavery. • 1838 - 1,350 anti slavery societies existed in the U.S. with 250,000 members. • Southerners burned antislavery propaganda and excluded it from the mail; Congress imposed a “gag rule”, to avoid abolitionist petitions. • Former President John Quincy Addams spent his final political years fighting against the gag rule.
Abolitionists • 1853 Harriet Beecher Stowe, wrote the book Uncle Tom’s Cabin, which depicted the evils of Slavery stirring up the conscience of the North. • William Lloyd Garrison published The Liberator, a newspaper that spoke out against slavery. • Frederick Douglass published anti-slavery writings and delivered speeches throughout the North. • Harriet Tubman was instrumental in the Underground Railroad which helped many fugitive slaves to escape to Canada . • In 1859 John Brown launched a slave revolt at Harpers Ferry.
States Rights • The isue of Slavery became tied to States Rights . • Southerners argued that the federal government was failing to respect the arrangement in the Constitution that had bound the states together. • South believed that the North & West were using the federal government’s power to charge high tariffs and challenge the preservation of slavery. • In 1828 Vice President John C. Calhoun stated that states had the right to nullify a federal law within its borders or to secede from the Union. • The principle of states rights eventually led to the secession of several southern states from the Union in 1860-1861.
Compromises • The Missouri Compromise of 1820, prohibited slavery north of the 36, 30 line. • The Compromise of 1850, California was admitted into the Union as a free state, but allowed Slave owners to hunt down their escaped slaves under the Fugitive Slave Law. • Kansas-Nebraska Act, Popular Sovereignty: people should decide if the area should be a free or a slave state. • 1857 Dred Scott Decision: A southern slave named Dred Scott sued for his freedom. The court ruled: Slaves were not citizens; they were property. The government cannot lawfully prohibit slavery in the new territories; therefore the Missouri Compromise of 1820 was found unconstitutional.
Secession • Abraham Lincoln (abolitionist) won the Presidential Election of 1860; South Carolina and 6 other immediately seceded from the Union, before Lincoln even took office. • The seceding Southern States formed the Confederate States of America and elected Jefferson Davis as their President. • Lincoln’s First Inaugural Address stated that “no state can lawfully get out of the Union.”
The War Begins • On April 12, 1861 Confederate forces fired on Fort Sumter in South Carolina which initiated the Civil War. • After the North surrendered at Fort Sumter, four more states seceded. • Some Southern states remained loyal to the Union.
Balance Sheet North v. South Population North =22 million South =6 million (free citizens) Transportation North had more railroads, canals, ports, and roads than the South Resources North=More Factories and more food South=Rural agricultural communities produced cotton and cash crops lacked manufacturing Leadership North=President Lincoln was a better leader than J. Davis . South=Gen. Robert E. Lee was a superior in military leader. Navel Power: South= few war ships North= had powerful navel ships to block off the southern ports
War Strategies The North The South • Gen. Winfield Scott’s Anaconda Plan: Surround the South like a giant snake to prevent them from receiving supplies from Europe. • Lincoln sent Union forces to take control of the Mississippi River to split the Confederacy in two. • Southerners were motivated to fight to uphold their way of life. • Northern attacks would be met by Confederate citizens defending their homes; the plan was self defense. • South would depend on European allies for support.
Battle of Manassas AKA Battle of Bull Run Battle of Antietam AKA Battle of Sharpsburg • July 1861 - 30,000 Union soldiers marched toward Richmond, but were defeated by Confederate Gen. “Stonewall” Jackson and his 22,000 troops. • The Union was forced to retreat • Davis and Lee believed that they could win the war if they invaded the North. • In 1862 Lee crossed into Maryland, Confederate troops were met by Union troops at Antietam Creek . • This was the bloodiest single day of the war; 6,000 soldiers were killed. • Lee retreated to Virginia.
Emancipation Proclamation • Lincoln used the victory at Antietam as the occasion for the announcing of the Emancipation Proclamation. • Lincoln wanted to give the war a greater moral purpose and wanted to prevent Britain and France from siding with the South. • The Emancipation Proclamation only freed the slaves in the rebelling states, not in the loyal border states.
Turning Point of the war The Battle of Gettysburg • In 1863 Lee and his troops moved North to cut off Washington D.C. from the rest of the Union. • Union and Confederate soldiers met at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. • After 3 days of heavy fighting, Lee retreated suffering many casualties and never being able to go on the offensive against the North. • 51,000 men were killed or injured.
The Gettysburg Address • 1863 President Lincoln was invited to the battlefield to dedicate a cemetery to the Union soldiers who had died there. • He read 2 minutes long simple and eloquent speech to an audience of 20,000 people. “The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us -- that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.”
Battle of Vicksburg • After Union Commander David Farragut captured the City of New Orleans. Northern troops made their way up the Mississippi River to split the Confederacy. • Union Gen. Ulysses S. Grant army won the Battle of Vicksburg. • The Confederate troops surrendered after a 47 day siege. • The residents of Vicksburg faced starvation after the siege; they ate rats, shoe leather and weeds. • Some residents went to find refuge in caves dug into the hillsides to avoid the hammering of the siege artillery • Grant’s victory cut the Confederacy in half.
Grant Takes the Lead • Lincoln was so pleased with Grant’s victory at Vicksburg that he placed him in charge of all Union forces. • Grant made his goal the total destruction of Confederate forcesand Southern economic resources.
Sherman’s March to Sea • Gen. Sherman’s orders from Grant were to further divide the Confederacy. • Union forces marched from Atlanta to Savannah tearing up railroads, cut telegraph lines, and burned down farms, businesses and villages. • Union Troops lived off the land.
Lincoln Wins Presidential Election of 1864 • Lincoln’s reelection was uncertain; he had been criticized for the his handling of the war. • The Union army had suffered many losses and some voters in the North were outraged by the Emancipation Proclamation, claiming Lincoln had gone too far. • His main opponent was George McClellan Commander of Union forces at Antietam. • Thanks to recent Union victories Lincoln won the election.
Lee’s Surrender • In April 1865, Richmond, Virginia, the capital of the Confederacy, the South fell to Union army. • Lee met Grant at Appomattox Court House. • Under Grant’s terms Lee and his men surrendered and were pardoned. • All Confederate arms were collected. • Both generals signed the document of surrender. • The war was officially over.
Lincoln’s Assassination • On April 15th, 1865 in Washington D.C. exactly four years after his call to put down the rebellion, Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth. • The assassin was an actor who believed Lincoln was a tyrant so he shot him in the back of the head at Ford’s Theatre. • Lincoln died the following day. • Had Lincoln lived, he was prepared to forgive the South and work together as Americans dedicated to a system of government based on liberty, equality and unity.
Works Cited Jarrett, Mark, Stuart Zimmer, and James Killoran. Mastering The 8 Social Studies TEKS. Ronkonkoma, NY: Jarrett Publishing, 2011. Print. Microsoft Images