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ALOE VERA. Cas Bridge Sam Korbe Lisa Vasicek. General Information. Member of the lily family. 240 species of Aloe . Aloe Vera, Aloe Barbadensis. Succulent, perennial, evergreen. Very hardy. Native to Africa, but is now widespread.

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  1. ALOE VERA Cas Bridge Sam Korbe Lisa Vasicek

  2. General Information • Member of the lily family. • 240 species of Aloe. • Aloe Vera, Aloe Barbadensis. • Succulent, perennial, evergreen. • Very hardy. • Native to Africa, but is now widespread. • It is a bitter herb with a wide range of medicinal properties. • It contains over 75 compounds, many of which are biologically active.

  3. History • Known as the “lily of the desert”. • Considered the “plant of immortality” by many native peoples. • Very long history of medical usage… • 2200 B.C.- Mentioned on Sumerian clay tablets. • 1550 B.C.- The Ebers Papyrus states 12 recipes for mixing Aloe with other agents to treat human disorders. • Usually the whole leaf was ground and mixed with another medicinal agent. • Used by Cleopatra and Nerfertiti.

  4. History Continued • 400 B.C.- Extensively traded in the Near East and Asia. • 333 B.C.- The Island of Socotra was captured by Alexander the Great because of its Aloe supplies. • 68 A.D.- Dioscorides wrote a detailed description of Aloe vera and all of its uses. • 200 A.D.- Aloe vera was an important part of Roman medicine and became extremely popular in Europe in the centuries to come. • 1500 A.D.- Introduced to the New World by the Conquistadors

  5. Modern History • First modern medical paper published in 1934. • Described how the whole leaf was used to treat radiation dermatitis. • Many papers published in the 20th century describing a wide range of medicinal properties. • Reports have mainly focused on the antidiabetic, anticancer, and antimicrobial properties of the whole leaf, gel, or juice of the plant. • Many species of Aloe have been studied.

  6. Lignins Inert except when in topical treatments Saponins 3% of Aloe Vera gel Fatty Acids Cholesterol, Campesterol, Sisosterol, and Lupeol Salicyclic acid Aspirin-like Amino Acids 20 amino acids Vitamins Vitamin D, A, C, E and B12 Enzymes Lipases, proteases, kinases Minerals Ca, Na, K, Mg, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr, and Se Sugars Mono and poly saccharides, gluco-mannans Anthraquinones Most important: Aloin, and Emodin 10 Main Component Groups of Aloe

  7. Aloe and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) • Normal: digestive tract absorbs nutrients into blood • bacteria helps breakdown food • IBS: unabsorbed food coats the bowel preventing normal absorption • Symptoms:Exhaustion, constipation, diarrhea, and indigestion • Colonic Irrigation: loosed and wash out residues

  8. Aloe and Rheumatoid Arthritis • Two main types of arthritis • Osteoarthritis: wear and tear of life • Rheumatoid: autoimmune disease • Symptoms: stiff, red, swollen joints • Traditional treatment: anti-inflammatory drugs with steroids • Aloe helps repair damage • Mode of Action: stimulate the Cytokines • Varying results

  9. Aloe and Cosmetics • Added because of known rejuvenating action • Mode of Action: • Polysaccachrides act as moisturizers • Stimulates the fibroblasts to replicate faster • Smoothes skin because sticks epidermal cells together which normally flake • Interferes with melanin deposit production which lead to “liver spots”

  10. Aloe and Diabetes • Characterized by hyperglycaemia and alterations of glucose and lipid metabolism • Lead to cell damage and elevation of reactive oxygen species • Must control blood glucose and lipid levels • Aloe shown to reduce blood glucose in diabetic rats

  11. Aloe and Diabetes

  12. Aloe and Diabetes • Decrease in blood glucose due to stimulation of insulin secretion • Decrease in cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, and free fatty acids from increased clearance and decreased transporters

  13. Anti-Microbial/-Bacterial • 50% gel leaf solution, complete inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus • Due to phenolics • Efficacy of gel or leaf? • S. aureus inhibited by both • Other bacteria inhibited by just leaf or gel

  14. Aloe, Antimicrobials, and Wounds • When aloe is combined with other anti-microbials, a wound heals faster than with the anti-microbial alone. • Possibly due to its moisturizing capability as well.

  15. Immune Booster? • Asian practice of ingesting herbs to support the immune system • May have a direct inhibitory effect on microbes • Also, selectively modulates cells of the immune system

  16. Alveolar Osteitis • Dry Socket (Wisdom teeth extraction) • Acemannan Hydrogel (from clear inner gel of aloe vera) • Normal treatment 7.6% develop AO • With Acemannan 1.1% develop AO Dry socket, clot does not form properly Normal

  17. Burn Treatment • Shows increased healing effects on 2nd degree burns • Anti-inflammation and wound healing promotion • Vessels return to normal size quicker than with untreated burns

  18. Aloe and Cancer • Aloe-emodin induces apoptosis in T24 human bladder cancer cells • Inhibits cell viability, induces G2/M arrest • Mechanism- p53, p21, caspase activation • Treat Radiation Symptoms?

  19. Neuroectodermal Cancer • Inhibits neuroectodermal tumors in mice. • Few toxic effects, does not inhibit normal fibroblasts. • Induces apoptosis and is specific to a tumor energy-dependent pathway of drug incorporation

  20. Cancer U-373 Glioma Cells • Aloe emodin • Regulation of cell cycle, cell proliferation and protein kinase C (PKC) • Inhibits S phase • Suppresses PKC activity

  21. Gastric and Colorectal Cancers • Aloe vera and Aloe arborescens did not suppress tumor growth • Life prolongation up to 32% in mice • Dose dependent

  22. Products • Gel and latex. • Gel- leaf pulp or mucilage obtained from the parenchymal tissue. • Latex- bitter, yellow substance obtained from pericyclic tubules just beneath the outer skin of the leaves. (otherwise called ‘Aloe juice’) • These terms are often confused by consumers. • Using a freshly cut leaf is thought to be the most effective treatment.

  23. Summary • Dental Health and Hygiene • Provides Rapid Soothing • Aids in Healthy Digestion • Immune Support and Function • Regulates Weight and Energy Levels • Collagen and Elastin Repair • Daily Dose of Minerals • Daily Dose of Vitamins • Anti-inflammatory Properties • Essential Amino Acids

  24. References • Agarry, O.O., M.T. Olaleye, and C.O. Bella-Michael. 2005. Comparative antimicrobial activities of Aloe vera gel and leaf. African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 4 (12):1413-1414. • Aloe vera and Digestion, Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Arthritis. http://www.positivehealth.com/Permit/Articles/Aloe%20Vera/aloinf20.htm 11 April 2006. • Aloe vera: Myth or Medicine? http://www.positivehealth.com/Permit/Articles/Aloe%20Vera/atherton.htm 11 April 2006. • Joeng, H.Y., J.H. Kim, S.J. Hwang, and D.K. Rhee. 1994. Anticancer effects of Aloe on sarcoma 180 in ICR mouse and on human cancer cell lines. Coll. Pharmacology, Vol. 38 (3):311-321. • Kuo, P.L., T.C. Lin, and C.C. Lin. 2002. The antiproliferative activity of aloe-emodin is through p53- dependent and p21- dependent apoptopic pathway in hepatoma cell lines. Journal of Life Sciences, Vol. 71 (16):1879-1892. • Pecere, T., M. Vittoria Gazzalo, C. Mucignat, C. Parolin, F. Dalla Vecchia, and A. Cavaggioni. 2000. Aloe-emodin is a new type of anticancer agent with selective activity against neuroectodermal tumors. American Association for Cancer Research, Vol. 60:2800-2804. • Rajasekaran, Subbiah, Kasiappan Ravi, Karuran Sivagnanam, and Sorimuthu Subramanian. 2006. Beneficial Effects of Aloe vera Leaf Gel Extract on Lipid Profile Status in Rats with Streptozotocin Diabetes. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, Vol. 33:232-237. • Roberts, D.B., and E.L. Travis. 1995. Acemannan- containing wound dressing gel reduces radiation-induces skin reactions in C3H mice. Int. Journal Oncol. Biol. Phys., Vol. 32 (4):1047-1052. • Tan B.H.K., and J. Vanitha. 2004. Immunomodulatory and antimicrobial effects of some traditional chinese medicinal herbs: A review. Current Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 11 (11):1423-1430. • Visuthikosal, V., B. Chowchuen, Y. Sukwanarat, S. Sriurairatana, and V. Boonpucknavig. 1995. Effect of Aloe vera gel to healing of burn wounds: A clinical and histologic study. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand. Vol. 78 (8): 403-409.

  25. Questions?

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