Bee Pests & Diseases 3/28/08
Strong Hives Make Healthy Hives • Most diseases can be avoided by keeping hives strong. • Frequent examinations • Prevention • Hopefully you will not see many of these in your 1st year.
Examine Your Hive In order to recognize a disease, you need to know what a healthy hive looks like. For example: • Are the bees bringing in pollen? • Get use to what the brood looks like. • What does it smell like? • Activity at the entrance? • You will learn this at your hive.
Brood frame Honey Drone cells
Healthy Frame Honey
Spotty brood pattern Brood Honey
We have seen healthy… Now: Diseases and Pests
Nosema Dissected bee Hind gut is inflamed by protozoan Bees unable to fly and have dysentery
Nosema & Dysentery - treatment • Symptom – Dysentery & Lethargy • Feed syrup with Fumigilin B • 1 teaspoon per gallon of syrup • Fumigilin kills parasite and stimulates digestive tract • Preventative feeding in Fall around Columbus day • Feed again in Spring after long confinement. • Feces from dysentery is very potent.
Nosema Update • Reclassified as a fungus. • New variety of Nosema called Nosema Ceranae. - More virulent than Nosema Apis - Prevalent later in summer. - Fumigilin is very effective treatment. - On the short list for CCD
Varroa Mites • Detection • Uncap some Drone cells and pick out the larva • Use a Screened bottom board with a sticky paper and do a two day mite count (<60 good) • Ether Roll, Alcohol Roll, Sugar Roll (< 6 good) • Treatment • Use a screened bottom board • Cycle capped drone frames through freezer • Dust with powdered sugar • Break brood cycle. • Mitecide treatments: Formic Acid, Oxalate Acid, Sachcrocide Api Life Var, Apistan.
Wax Moth • Bees can fend off the moth during the summer. • Frames removed from the hive contain eggs which hatch and eat up wax, brood and honey. • Left unchecked the they will destroy the comb. • You put nice looking frames away in the Fall and discover they are ruined a couple months later.
Wax Moth prevention • Freeze the frame for two days to kill larva. • Expose frames to daylight. • Fumigate removed frames with PDB ParaDichloralBenzene aka Moth Ice Crystals • Place empty frames in stacked supers and place a teaspoon of PDB on a piece of paper on top of frames. Cover the stack of frames. • Air out frames before putting back on hive • Do not use Moth Balls DCB (dichloralnaphthalene)
Chalkbrood • A mold infection that is non fatal • Symptom • White moldy mummified bees on bottom board • Treatment • Rectify conditions that promote moisture such as a hive that is not tipped forward, spilled syrup • Move hive to a sunny location.
Skunks & Raccoons • Symptom • Scratches on landing board, bottom board or front of hive. Muddy foot prints • Bees have become nasty • Treatment • Raise hive at least 6 inches off ground • Drive tacks through shingles and place in front of hive • Roll of chicken wire in front of hive
Mice • Mice move in for winter. • The mice eat the honey comb and make a mess. • Bees may kill the mouse and mummify the mouse in propolis • Put on a Mouse guard in early September. • Leave the Guard on until April. • Mouse guard should be metal
American Foulbrood Bacteria that attacks brood – SMELLS BAD!
American Foulbrood -2 Cell capsunken & open
AFB Larva “tongue” Stick a toothpick into larva cell. You see goo instead of larva.
AFB Foulbrood Treatment • Foulbrood is contagious… practice safe beekeeping. Avoid used equipment. • Strong hives resist bacteria • Frames smell rotten, or foul • You can try Tylon (antibiotic) for mild cases. • For severe cases kill the bees and burn the hive. • Bees can be killed by spraying with soapy water
European Foulbrood • Symptoms • Larva die in twisted shapes • Larva are uncapped • Foul odor • Treatment • Treatable with antibiotics • Tylon dusted and fed
Tracheal Mites • Small Mites that live in the tracheal tubes • Symptom • Can only be confirmed by doing an autopsy and a 200X microscope • Weakens hive and lowers ability to get through winter. • Treatment • Menthol pads • Grease Patties 1/3 cup Sugar 1/4 Criscosee bottom of page 133 of textbook
Small Hive Beetle • Currently not a problem in Northeast. • Can come in via a package or Nucleus • They crawl in and out of hive. • A severe infestation will slime your honey • Treatment • West Beetle Trap • Ground drench
Strong Hives Make Healthy Hives • Most diseases can be avoided by keeping hives strong. • Frequent examinations • Prevention • Hopefully you will not see many of these ------------------------------------------------- Questions?
Overtime -IPM • IPM (Integrated Pest Management) • Regular measurement. • Establish an economic threshold. • Arrange treatment methods in ascending strengths. • Drone trapping, sugar dusting, break brood cycle, organic acids, strong mitecides. • Escalate to next higher treatment when threshold is reached.
Overtime CCD • Short answer: don’t know the cause. • But probably multiple causes. • Short List: • Varroa Mites • Nosema • Pesticides • Healthy diet.