Effective Project Management: Traditional, Agile, Extreme Managing Complexity in the Face of Uncertainty Presented by (facilitator name) Ch02: Understanding Project Management Process Groups
Summary of Chapter 2 Ch02: Project Life Cycle Processes • Fundamentals of project management • 5 process groups • 9 knowledge areas • Mapping knowledge areas into process groups
Process Groups • The five Process Groups were originally defined by the Project Management Institute (PMI) in their standards guidelines called the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK). • PMBOK has become standard for the practice of project management worldwide.
Understanding the Fundamentals of Project Management • the history of modern project management dates from the 1950s. • Several definitions have focused on project to be completed on-time, under-budget, and according to client specifications. • definition of the author: project management is ‘‘organized common sense,’’
Ch02: Project Life Cycle Processes Definition of Project Management Project management is a method and set of techniques based on accepted principles of management used for planning, estimating, and controlling work activities to reach a desired result on time, within budget and according to specification. (PMBOK) Project management is organized common sense supported by the tools, templates and processes to guarantee satisfying client requirements and delivering business value. (Robert K. Wysocki)
Ch02: Project Life Cycle Processes Understanding the Fundamentals • all valid project management methodologies must be reducible to answering the following six simple questions: • What business situation is being addressed? • What do you need to do? • What will you do? • How will you do it? • How will you know you did it? • How well did you do?
Great project manager • You can learn to be a cook and be able to follow recipes, or you can learn to be a chef and be able to create recipes for cooks to follow. • The sign of a great project manager is one who can quickly adapt when a project does not meet the exact requirements of the approach being used or a surprise arises during the course of doing the project.
What Business Situation Is Being Addressed? • The situation may be either of the following: • A project that corrects a problem. • 2) A project that takes advantage of a untapped business opportunity.
A project that corrects a problem • the company is experiencing less than acceptable process performance • a system no longer meets the needs for which it was originally put in place • business conditions or requirements have changed, and the system needs to change as well • legal requirements and regulations have changed, and systems need to be updated. • The project being proposed may address all or some part of the problem.
A project that takes advantage of a untapped business opportunity. This could come about as a result of changing market conditions or the emergence of a new or improved technology.
What Do You Need to Do? • What the client wants may not be what the client needs, and it is up to you, the project manager, to identify the client’s true needs. • clients will often express their wants as their attempt at proposing a solution to an unstated problem. • The solution should address the client’s real needs, and you must convince them that it is the needs not the wants that you will address.
What Will You Do? • Once you understand what is needed, you and the client have to decide what can be done to meet that need. • Of course you would like to meet all client requirements, but that may not be possible. • A partial solution may be all that you can provide, and others will have to pick up the pieces and provide additional parts of the solution. • Even after you have made a choice to use what you believe to be the best-fit model, you will have to modify it at the beginning of the project or at points along the way.
How Will You Do It? • This is your plan for delivering an acceptable solution. • how long it will take, what resources will be needed, and how much the solution will cost • When you can’t build that ideal plan, you will have to use some variant of a just-in-time planning model • Plan a little, do a little, and continue in that repetitive fashion until the project is completed..
How Will You Know You Did It? • An acceptable solution will meet both client requirements and business success criteria. • Client requirements are what the client believes define the best way to meet those business success criteria. • If satisfying client requirements does result in the best solution, then those business success criteria will have been met as well. • success criteria should be stated at the beginning of the project in such a way that it is obvious that by the end of the project they have or have not been met.
How Well Did You Do? • The project work is complete, and the solution has been implemented. It’s time for the post-mortem. • There are two different things to consider in analyzing how well you did: • The first is the quality of the product that was produced by the project. 2) The second thing to consider is the process that was followed to produce the product.
The quality of the product that was produced by the project • Did the project meet the client requirements, and did it achieve the business success criteria that justified doing the project in the first place? • a complete requirements definition cannot be done at the beginning of the project. Instead, the requirements list is a changing and expanding list that evolves over the life of the project. • Requirements are learned and discovered during the course of executing the project plan.
the process that was followed to produce the product • How well defined and documented were the project management processes you chose to use? • How well did the chosen processes fit the needs of the project? • How well did the team follow the chosen processes? • How well did the chosen processes produce the expected results? • Answers to the first two questions provide input to needed project management process improvements, and answers to the last two questions will provide input to needed practice improvement efforts (for example, training needs or improved processes for making project assignments).
Defining the Five Process Groups • whatever project management life cycle model you use must contain all of the Process Groups
Ch02: Project Life Cycle Processes The Five Project Management Process Groups Develop and gain approval of a general statement of the goal and business value of the project. The Scoping Process Group Identify work to be done and estimate time, cost and resource requirements and gain approval. The Planning Process Group The Monitoring & Controlling Process Group Recruit the team and establish team operating rules. Respond to change requests and resolve problem situations to maintain project progress. The Launching Process Group The Closing Process Group Assure attainment of client requirements and install deliverables.
The Scoping Process Group • PMBOK calls this the Initiating Process Group. • However, the term initiating can be confusing. The author find the term scoping to be clearer. • This Process Group includes all processes related to answering the question ‘‘What do you need to do?’’ • It does not include any processes related to doing any project work. That project work is defined in the Planning Process Group to be done later in the project life cycle.
The Scoping Process Group.... • The Scoping Process Group also includes establishing the business success criteria that will be the metrics used to answer the question ‘‘How will you know you did it?’’
Ch02: Project Life Cycle Processes The Project Management Process Groups Develop and gain approval of a general statement of the goal and business value of the project. The Scoping Process Group • Recruiting the project manager • Eliciting the true needs of the client • Documenting the client’s needs • Negotiating with the client how these needs will be met • Writing a one-page description of the project • Gaining senior management approval to plan the project
The Planning Process Group • The Planning Process Group includes all processes related to answering the question ‘‘How will you do it?’’
Ch02: Project Life Cycle Processes The Project Management Process Groups Identify work to be done and estimate time, cost and resource requirements and gain approval to do the project. • Defining all of the work of the project • Estimating how long it will take to complete this work • Estimating the resources required to complete the work • Estimating the total cost of the work • Sequencing the work • Building the initial project schedule • Analyzing & adjusting the project schedule • Writing a risk management plan • Documenting the project plan • Gaining senior management approval to launch the project The Planning Process Group
The Launching Process Group • PMBOK calls this the Executing Process Group. It is that and more. • The Launching Process Group includes all processes related to recruiting and organizing the team and establishing the team operating rules. These processes are preparatory to executing the project. • The Launching Process Group also includes all of the processes related to getting the project work started. These would be the executing processes.
Ch02: Project Life Cycle Processes The Project Management Process Groups Recruit the team and establish team operating rules. • Recruiting the project team • Writing the Project Description Document • Establishing team operating rules • Establishing the scope change management process • Managing team communications • Finalizing the project schedule • Writing work packages The Launching Process Group
The Launching Process Group…. • During the execution of this Process Group, the entire team may be coming together for the first time. There will be client members and your delivery team members present. Perhaps they are mostly strangers to one another. At this point, they are nothing more than a group. They are not yet a team but must become one in very short order. • the project manager will conduct that first team meeting with care, giving team members an opportunity to introduce themselves and what they bring to the project to the other team members.
Ch02: Project Life Cycle Processes The Project Management Process Groups Respond to change requests and resolve problem situations to maintain project progress. • Monitoring project performance • Establishing the project performance and reporting system • Monitoring risk • Reporting project status • Processing scope change requests • Discovering and solving problems The Monitoring & Controlling Process Group
The Monitoring and Controlling Process Group…. • Here is where the real work of the project takes place. • As problems and change requests arise, the strength of your relationship with your client will in large measure contribute to the success or failure of the project.
The Closing Process Group • The Closing Process Group includes all processes related to the completion of the project, including answers to the question ‘‘How well did you do?’’
Ch02: Project Life Cycle Processes The Project Management Process Groups Assure attainment of client requirements and install deliverables. • Gaining client approval of having met project requirements • Planning and installing deliverables • Writing the final project report • Conducting the post-implementation audit The Closing Process Group
Defining the Nine Knowledge Areas • The nine Knowledge Areas are part of the PMBOK and are all present in every project management life cycle. • They define the processes within each Process Group and often are part of more than one Process Group.
Ch02: Project Life Cycle Processes The Nine Project Management Knowledge Areas • Integration Management • Scope Management • Time Management • Cost Management • Quality Management • Human Resources Management • Communications Management • Risk Management • Procurement Management
Mapping Knowledge Areas to Process Groups • What the Mapping Means • This mapping shows how interdependent the Knowledge Areas are with the Process Groups. • For example, eight of the nine Knowledge Areas are started during the Planning Process Group and executed during the Monitoring and Control Process Group.
Ch02: Project Life Cycle Processes Mapping Knowledge Areas to Process Groups Table 02-01
How to Use the Mapping • The mapping provides an excellent blueprint for designing your project management approach to a project. • For example, Procurement Management spans the Planning, Launching, Monitoring and Controlling, and Closing Process Groups. • Therefore, a PMLC model for Procurement Management will be effective if it has components in each of those Process Groups
Definition of a Project Management Life Cycle • A project management life cycle (PMLC) is a sequence of processes that includes scoping, planning, launching, monitoring, controlling, and closing the projects to which it applies.
Ch02: Project Life Cycle Processes The Project Management Life Cycle (PMLC) • Contrary to Public Opinion Process, Groups are not a PMLC. • Process Groups will be mapped to form Complex PMLCs. • by properly sequencing and perhaps repeating some Process Groups, you can define PMLCs that are project management methodologies. So the • Process Groups are the building blocks of project management methodologies. the processes within a Process Group are the detailed building blocks of the phases of the PMLC.
Integration Management • This knowledge area addresses the glue that links all of the deliverables from the Process Groups into a unified whole.
Scope Management • The major focus of the Scope Management Knowledge Area is the identification and documentation of client requirements. • This linkage begins with the project description document and extends to the project plan and its execution, including monitoring progress against the project plan and the integration of changes, and finally through to project closure.
NEEDS WANTS Ch02: Project Life Cycle Processes Scope Management – Client Wants vs. Client Needs What your client wants may not be what your client needs.
Scope Management • Following requirements gathering and documentation, you choose the best-fit project management life cycle and develop the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) that defines the work to be done to deliver those requirements. • That prepares the team and the client with the information they need to estimate time, cost, and resource requirements. • The Scope Management Knowledge Area overlaps the Scoping and the Planning Process Groups.
Time Management • Time management includes both a planning component and a control component. • The planning component provides time estimates for both the duration of a project task (that is, how long will it take in terms of clock time to complete the task) and the actual effort or labor time required to complete the task. • The duration is used to estimate the total time needed to complete the project. • The labor time is used to estimate the total labor cost of the project.
Time Management…. • The control component is part of the Monitoring and Controlling Process Group and involves comparing estimated times to actual times as well as managing the schedule and cost variances.
Cost Management • Cost management includes both a planning component and a control component. • The planning component includes building the project budget and mapping those costs into the project schedule. This provides a means of controlling the consumption of budget dollars across time. • Variance reports and earned value reports are used in the Monitoring and Controlling Process Group.
Ch02: Project Life Cycle Processes Quality Management – Definition of Quality • Fit for use • Meets all client requirements • Delivered on time within budget and according to client specifications ‘‘delight the client’’ ?? Quality refers to meeting agreed requirements not exceeding them.
Ch02: Project Life Cycle Processes Quality Management – Types of Quality • Process Quality • The quality of the project management process that produced the product • Product Quality • The quality of the deliverables from the project
Ch02: Project Life Cycle Processes Quality Management – Consists of: Quality planning Project Quality Management Quality assurance Quality control
Ch02: Project Life Cycle Processes Quality Planning Determine relevant quality standards for the project and what you can do to satisfy them These may be external to the organization (federal or agency quality requirements) or internal (company policies and guidelines). In addition, there will be project-specific requirements that must be met. Quality planning must integrate all of these into a cohesive program.
Ch02: Project Life Cycle Processes Quality Assurance Quality assurance includes activities that ensure compliance to the plan.