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Conditional sentences / I wish

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Conditional sentences / I wish

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  1. Conditionalsentences / I wish

  2. Conditionalsentences, meaning A conditional sentence expresses the idea that one thing depends on the other: If you see Paul, you will not recognize him. Si ves a Paul, no le reconocerás

  3. The meaning of the conditional sentence depends on the verbs used in it: How do you say these sentences in English? 1. If you meet the President of USA, you will be famous Si conocesal presidente de USA. Te hacesfamoso/a (esunanorma) 2. If you met the President of USA, you would be famous Si conocieras al presidente, teharíasfamoso (esunaposibilidad) 3. If you had met the President of USA, you would have been famous Si hubierasconocido al presidente, tehabríashechofamoso (esunacosairrealizableporqueya NO pasó)

  4. Firstconditional

  5. Complete these sentences: 1. If you don't water a plant……. 2…………………..... miss the bus, you will be late for school 3. If you can help me, …………………………… • If I get up at five o'clock in the morning……….. Key: 1. itdies 2. ifyou 3. do it 4 I’llbeon time

  6. Otherpossibilities

  7. Finally, another possibility for the first conditional is the following:

  8. Substitute the underlined sentence with another one with unless: Example: I won't pay if you don’t give me the food I won't pay unless you give me the food • You'll never understand this lesson if you don't study Unless you study 2. The teacher won't let you in if you are not at school on time Unless you are on time 3. These maths exercises are impossible if you don't have a pocket calculator Unless you have a pocket calculator 4. You cannot become a professional model if you are not very tall Unless you are very tall

  9. Second conditional We use the second conditional to talk about a situation which is impossible:

  10. Other examples: If people had wings, they would fly (they cannot, so it's unreal) Pay attention: If I were you, I wouldn't tell anyone I saw an UFO (this is used to give advice = Si fueratú) Remember that you use were for all persons. If she were here, she would help me If I were not so buy, I would travel more

  11. Write in English: 1.Si estuviéramos de vacaciones, estaríamos en la playa Ifwewereonholiday, wewouldbeonthebeach 2. Iríamosmás a vertesivivierasmáscerca We could go to see you more often if you lived nearby 3. Te diría la verdadsi la supiera I would tell you the truth if I knew it 4. Si yofueratú, no me gastaríaesedinero If I were you, I wouldn’t spend that money 5. Si yo fuera más joven, iría a las Olimpiadas If I wereyounger, I wouldgototheOlympics

  12. Write in English 1. Si supiera dónde están, te daría las llaves If I knewwheretheyare,Iwouldgiveyouthekeys 2. Si fueras rey/ reina, ¿qué harías? Ifyouwere a king/queen, whatwouldyou do? 3. Si dejaras de fumar no toserías tanto. Ifyoustopped smoking, youwouldn’tcough so much 4. ¿Dónde irías a vivir si pudieras escoger un sitio? Wherewouldyouliveifyoucouldchoose a place?

  13. Otherpossibilities You can use other modal verbs than "would" such as might, or could, but they change the meaning of the sentence a little: Compare: If I had all that money, I would stop working If I had all that money, I could stop working

  14. Third conditional We use the third conditional to talk about a situation which is impossible and is in the past:

  15. Other examples: If I had known the truth, I wouldn't have been angry with you She wouldn't have left her boyfriend if she hadn't met the other boy

  16. Otherpossibilities You can use other modals, instead of would, but there is also a change in meaning: What is the difference? If I had not spent all my money, I would have bought a new computer If I had nor spent all my money, I might have bought a new computer

  17. How do you say the following in Spanish? 1. If you hadn't been late for the contest, you would have won Si no hubierasllegadotarde al concurso, habríasganado 2.If I had seen him at the meeting, I would have asked him Si le hubieravisto en la reunión, le habríapreguntado 3.If I had paid more attention in class, I would have understood the lesson Si hubieraatendidomás en clase, habríaentendidio la lección

  18. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate words in the clues: 1. He crashed his car, because he fell asleep while driving.If he ………………………. while driving, he …………………..car. If he hadn’t fallen asleep while driving, he wouldn’t have crashed his car 2. We couldn't go to the concert, because we didn't have money.If we …………………………money, we …………………… to the concert. If we had had money, we would have gone to the concert 3. I lost my job because I was late for work. I ……………………..job if I ……………………………. late for work.If I hadn’t been late for work, I wouldn’t have lost my job 4. The wind was so strong that the bridge collapsed.If the wind …………o strong, the bridge …………………….. If the wind hadn’t been so strong, the bridge would not have collapsed 5. I couldn't call Sally because I had lost her number.I …………………Sally if I ………………………….. number. I would have phoned Sally if I had known her number

  19. Rephrasings 1. Jim fell down the stairs, that's why he didn’t play football last Sunday. If ................................................................................................................ If Jim hadn’t fallen down the stairs, he would have played last Sunday 2. If you don't come with me I won't go to the theatre. Unless ....................................................................... Unless you come with me I won’t go to the theatre 3. I don't like Tim because he is always saying nasty things. I would .............................................................................. I would like Tim if he weren’t always saying nasty things. 4. We were late because the plane was delayed by the bad weather. If the ............................................................................................. If the plane had not been delayed by the bad weather we would not have been late 5. If you want my advice, don't sell your car. If I ............................................................... If I were you, I would not sell my car

  20. Rephrasings II 6. I don't live near my office, so I have to drive. If .................................................................................. If I lived near my office, I wouldn’t have to drive 7.He has eaten so many sweets that he isn’t hungry now. If ............................................................................... If he hadn’t eaten so many sweets he would be hungry 8. Anne doesn't look nice because her clothes are always untidy. If ............................................................................................... If Anne’s clothes were tidy, she would look nice 9. She won't babysit for us if we don't pay her. Unless ............................................................ Unless we pay her she won’t babysit for us 10. We can't go for a picnic because it is raining. If ..................................................................... If it weren’t raining, we could go for a picnic

  21. Online extra exercises • http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/StudyZone/330/grammar/0cond1.htm • http://www.better-english.com/grammar/if2.htm • http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-1-simple/exercises • http://www.englishgrammarsecrets.com/thirdconditional/exercise3.swf

  22. I wish We use I wish /ifonlytotalkaboutsomethingwewouldliketobedifferent. I wish I had my own car Weallwishthe crisis ended Shewishesshehadfound a job in Galicia I wish I hadnot moved toSpain

  23. Structure En esta construcción, el verbo bedebe ser were en todas las personas, aunque cada vez más esta forma es remplazada por was en el lenguaje coloquial (aunque esto es más raro en la 1ª persona del singular): I wish [that] / If only I were / (was) there!(¡Ojaláestuviera / estuvieseallí!) I wish [that] / If only his sister were / was nicer!(¡Ojalá su hermana fuera / fuese más amable!) ¡Ojalá fuera / fuese más fácil!

  24. Uses of wish 1. Para expresar el deseo de que algo sea distinto a como es: I wish  [that] / if only  + sujeto  + past I wish [that] / If only you were here!(¡Ojaláestuvieras / estuviesesaquí!) 2. Para expresar el deseo de que algo ocurra en el futuro: I wish [that]  / if only  +  sujeto  + would /could / might + infinitive I wish [that] / If only she could phone soon!(¡Ojalá ella pudiera / pudiese llamar pronto!)

  25. Meanings of wish 3. Esta forma también sirve para expresar el deseo de que alguien cambie un comportamiento en el presente o en el futuro. I wish [that] / If only you could stop smoking!(¡Ojalá pudieras dejar de fumar!) 4. Asimismo sirve para expresar una queja o una crítica en el presente: If only the children would stop shouting!(¡Ojalá los niños dejaran de gritar!)

  26. Meanings of wish Si lo que pedimos no depende de la voluntad del sujeto que tiene quellevar a cabo el cambio: I wish [that] / Ifonly+ sujeto + PAST I wish [that] / If only this car weren't so expensive! ¡Ojalá este coche no fuera / fuese tan caro! La palabra that puede usarse u omitirse

  27. Meanings of wish La construcción es igual si uno habla de sí mismo: I wish [that] / Ifonly I weren't so coward!(¡Ojalá no fuera / fuese tan miedoso !) No hay diferencia entre I wish /Ifonly I wish I werefaster = Ifonly I werefaster

  28. Write in english 1. Ojalá no trabajaras tanto. I wishyoudidn’twork so much 2. Ojalá tuviéramos tiempo libre para viajar por el mundo Wewishwehad more free time totravelaroundtheworld. 3. Ojalá no hubiera guerras I wishtherewere no wars 4. Ojalá la vecina de arriba dejara de tocar el piano I wishtheneighbourupstairsstoppedplayingthe piano

  29. Wish in thepast Podemos usar esta forma en pasado Subject+ wish+ subject + had /hadn’t + participle I wish I hadnevermethim para expresar el deseo de que algo hubiera ocurrido de forma diferente: wish [that]  / if only  +  sujeto  +  past perfect I wish [that] / If only I hadn't married so young! I wish your flight had not been delayed

  30. Exercises ; rewritethesesentencesusingtheclues in brackets 1. We always have to take the bus home. I wish we (not live)  so far from the city centre (didn’t live) 2. We are completely soaked. I wish we (bring)  the umbrella (Had brought) 3. He is always whistling. I wish he (not do)  that all the time (Wouldn’t do) 4. We are having a wonderful holiday on the beach. I wish you (be)  here (were) 5. This computer is useless. I wish my parents (choose)  a better one when they bought it (Had chosen)

  31. Exercises. Complete withtheappropriateform of theverb in brackets 1. She's got a new job but she feels bored. She wishes her boss …………………(give)  her more responsibility. Gave her/would give her 2. He's sorry he missed the wedding ceremony. He wishes he ………………….(go) Had gone/ had been able to go 3. I wish my neighbours……………….. (not make)  so much noise. I can hardly sleep at night Didn’t make/wouldn’t make 4. Citizens wish their leaders…………….. (start)  doing something to improve the economic situation Started/would start 5. They have lots of money. Even so, they wished they ……………………(have)  more and more Had

  32. Rephrasings • Para rephrasings, lo más usual esdescribir un hecho y sugerirque no nosgusta: I eat too much chocolate I wish I didn’t eat so much chocolate • Ojo a siespresente, pasado o futuro, yaqueesto decide qué forma gramaticaldebemosusar: Simon has gone on holiday and I really need to speak to him. I wish …. I wish Simon hadn’t gone on holiday I don't have much time If only…… If only I had more time • También pueden pedirnos que sustituyamos I wish por Ifonly, pero no hay cambio alguno, unicamente recuerda que thatno se puede usar con Ifonly I wish that he were here If only he were here…

  33. Rephrasingswith I wish/ ifonly Cuidadoporquebuena parte de la información se omite o se daporentendida en el rephrasng. I was late and I couldn’t park my car I wish I hadn’t been late. Podríamosañadir el resto de la frasepero con un conector: I wish I hadn’t been late, that way I would have been able to park the car

  34. Rehrasings. Exercises 1. I ate too  much and now I have stomachache. I wish…. I wish I hadn’t eaten so much 2. His parents would like him to look after himself They wish….. Theywish he lookedafterhimself 3. I can't smoke anywhere now. The anti-smoking law is so restrictive! I wish I wish the anti-smokkinglaw were not so restrictive 4. It's a pity we don't own a boat, I love sailing. If only I only we owned a boat we could go sailing. 5. I should never have said that I wish.. I wish I hadn’t said that

  35. Rehrasings II 5. I cannot sleep. The dog next door is making too much noise. I wish .. I wish the dog next door would stop making too much noise 6. I didn't see the TV programme but everybody said it was excellent I wish…. I wish I had seen the TV programme. 7. I went out in the rain and now I have a bad cold. I wish.. I wish I hadn’t gone out in the rain 8. I love California. I wouldliketobetherenow. Ifony.. I only I were in California 9. My faceis red I stayed in thesuntoolongyesterday. I wish.. I wish I hadn’tstayed in thesuntoolongyesterday. 10. I hate my new read hair I should have dyed it. I wish.. I wish I hadn’t dyed my hair red

  36. Online extra exercises • http://www.better-english.com/grammar/wishes.htm • http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/grammar-exercise-if-only-I-wish.php • http://www.englishgrammarsecrets.com/wish/menu.php • http://random-idea-english.blogspot.com.es/2011/08/revising-i-wish-and-if-only-lesson-and.html