Creating a successful and safe learning environment NC Teacher Corps Summer Institute 2013
Exceptional Children Division Behavior Support & Special Programs Positive Behavior Intervention & Support Initiative
Objective Participants will create a classroom plan based on Positive Behavior Intervention and Support philosophies.
Today’s Agenda • PBIS Overview • Routines and Procedures Review • Defining Classroom Expectations • Teaching Expectations • Encouraging Positive Behavior • Basics of Behavior • Responding with Effective Consequences • Review and Homework
Participant Expectations Be Responsible Return promptly from breaks Be an active participant Use electronic devices appropriately Be Respectful Maintain phone etiquette Listen attentively to others Limit sidebars and stay on topic Be Kind Enter discussions with an open mind Respond appropriately to others’ ideas Honor confidentiality
Attention Signal Please make note of time limits and watch your clocks! • Trainer will raise his/her hand. • Finish your thought/comment. • Participants will raise a hand and wait quietly.
Positive Behavior Intervention and Support: Definition A systems approach for establishing the social culture and individualized behavioral supports needed for schools to be effective learning environments for all students - Rob Horner, Ph.D. Co-Director National Technical Assistance Center for Positive Behavioral Interventions and Support
Guiding Principles • All students are valuable and deserve respect. • All students can be taught to demonstrate appropriate behavior. • Punishment does not work to change behavior. • School climate is a shared responsibility among administrators, teachers, staff, students and families.
Guiding Principles • School personnel must be willing to examine their own behavior as students are taught to change theirs. • Cultural differences exist and need to be understood. • Positive relationships between students and adults are key to student success.
Supporting Social Competence and Academic Achievement OUTCOMES Supporting Staff Behavior Supporting Decision Making SYSTEMS DATA PRACTICES Positive Behavior Intervention and Support Supporting Student Behavior
5% CONTINUUM OF POSITIVE BEHAVIOR INTERVENTION AND SUPPORT FBA/BIP De-escalation 15% Social Skills Mentoring Check In Self Management Classroom Based Intervention 80% Defining & Teaching Expectations Routines & Procedures Reinforcement Systems Effective Consequences
Traditional Discipline vs. PBIS Traditional Discipline • Focuses on the student’s problem behavior • Goal is to stop undesirable behavior, through the use of punishment • Primarily reactive Positive Behavior Intervention and Support • Replaces undesired behavior with a new behavior or skill • PBIS alters environments, teaches appropriate skills, and rewards appropriate behavior • Primarily proactive
What is Effective Classroom Management? Classroom management refers to all of the things that an educator does to organize students, space, time, and materials, so that instruction in content and student learning can take place.
Classroom Management Plan • At the end of each section, you will be asked to apply learning to your own classroom management plan. • Use the classroom management plan template to guide you. • Your overall plan should include: • Routines and procedures • Classroom expectations • Methods for teaching expectations • Procedures for encouraging positive behavior • Procedures for responding to problem behavior
Routines and Procedures: Definition • Routines are a habitual performance of an established procedure. • Procedures are a series of steps followed in a regular definite order.
Routines and Procedures: Strategies • Physical Space • Schedule • Attention Signal(s) • Opening Routines • During Class Routines • Ending Routines
Routines and Procedures: Summary • Routines and procedures should be taught and practiced with students. • Physical space and schedule can be manipulated to maximize positive behavior. • An attention signal is a useful tool for all teachers. • Have and teach specific routines for the beginning, middle and end of the day or class.
Activity: Classroom Plan, Section 1 • With your tablemates, discuss one key routine that you plan to teach your students. • Develop steps to teach that routine and complete Section 1 of the Classroom Plan. • Continue work on Section 1 of your Classroom Plan for homework. • Be prepared to share.
Classroom Expectations • In order for positive behavior to be demonstrated, there must be clear expectations. • Students need to know what is expected of them and how to meet those expectations. • Classroom expectations must be related to school-wide expectations, but can be modified to be specific to your class.
Teaching Expectations: Teach-Monitor-Feedback Loop Teach your expectations before the activity or transition begins. Monitor student behavior by circulating and visually scanning. Provide feedback during the activity and at the conclusion of the activity. Begin the cycle again for the next activity. 25
Developing and Teaching Expectations: Summary • Clearly define classroom expectations. • Utilize all lesson components when teaching expectations. • Teach expectations to mastery. • Incorporate behavioral instruction throughout your day.
Activity: Classroom Plan • Develop classroom expectations that are aligned with your school-wide expectations, or follow the example provided. • Continue work on Section 2 of your Classroom Plan. • With your tablemates, discuss how to best teach expectations and rules. Consider various grade levels and settings. • Be prepared to share.
Encouraging Positive Behaviors • Expectations alone will not support demonstration of positive behavior. • Students must be encouraged to meet expectations. • Classroom systems for reinforcement need to be aligned with any school-wide system. • The strategies in this section will help ensure that adults will focus on positive behavior in a consistent and frequent manner.
Encouraging Positive Behaviors:Apply Pre-correction Strategies • Pre-corrects • Motivation • Enthusiasm • Relationships • Reinforcement
Encouraging Positive Behaviors: Summary • Expectations will not be consistently demonstrated without motivation and reinforcement. • Building genuine positive relationships is critical to encourage positive behavior. • Positive feedback should be given four times more often than corrective feedback. • Reinforcement can be done in a variety of ways and a system needs to be in place to ensure frequency. Remember: Earned = Kept!
Activity: Classroom Plan • With your tablemates, discuss ways that reinforcements or rewards have been useful in “real-world” environments. • Discuss how you would prefer to be acknowledged or recognized for your work or performance. • Complete this section of your Classroom Plan.
Rationale Before we can understand effective consequences, we have to understand the science behind behavior.
Child Wants Something Child Throws Parent Gives Item Child Stops Tantrum Tantrum Behavior Basics: Scenario One: The Grocery Store
Antecedent Consequence Child Behavior Parent Behavior Child Behavior Consequence Behavior Basics: Analysis
Student leaves Behavior Basics: Scenario Two: High School Student is tired There is a quiz today Student puts head down on desk and refuses to complete quiz Teacher asks student to leave the class
Behavior Basics: Analysis Antecedent Consequence Student Behavior Teacher Behavior Student Behavior Consequence
Behavior Basics: Assumptions Behavior is learned. Every social interaction you have with a child teaches him/her something. Relationships matter! Behavior alters when those involved have a prior positive relationship.
Behavior Basics: The ABCs of Behavior Understanding the purpose of behavior comes from repeated observation of: A: Antecedent: stimulus before the behavior B: Behavior: observable and measurable act C: Consequence: what occurs after the behavior that serves to maintain or increase frequency of behavior
Behavior Basics: Antecedents • Antecedents are events that happen before the behavior. • There are two types of antecedents: • Conditional • Situational
Behavior Basics: Conditional Antecedents • May occur anywhere (home, school, community, disability) • Increase the likelihood that behavior will occur • Oversleeping • Medication or lack of medication • Hunger • Conflict with a particular person
Activity: Conditional Antecedents • How have you seen conditional antecedents impact behavior in a school or in the workplace? • Pair with someone at your table. • Share your ideas. Be sure that each person gets to share.
Behavior Basics : Situational Antecedents • Behavior triggered by specific event • Changes to regularly scheduled events due to bomb threats, fire drills, etc. • Teasing/sarcasm/threats • Challenged by others • May be consistent • Group work • Math • May be unique to one situation • Field trips to the zoo • Substitute teacher
Activity: Situational Antecedents • With a colleague, brainstorm possible situational antecedents. Use the paper on your table. • Be sure that each person gets to share ideas.
Behavior Basics: Behavior Behavior is… • anything that we say or do. • how we react to situations and/or conditions. • learned because a purpose or function is served. • repeated because a desired outcome occurs.
Behavior Basics: Consequences • Consequences are: • The outcome of the behavior • The responses of adults and/or peers to the behavior • Consequences that reinforce behavior lead to repetition of the behavior.
Behavior Basics: Consequences Behavior is affected by its consequences: Emily raises her hand. Emily’s teacher calls on her to share. She is likely to continue to raise her hand to share ideas.
Behavior Basics: Consequences Behavior is strengthened or maintained by consequences that reinforce it: Adam correctly completes his assignments. He is allowed extra time on the computer. He will likely continue to complete his assignments again because he enjoys computer time.
Behavior Basics: Consequences Behavior is weakened by withholding consequences that have maintained it: Riley constantly fidgets and taps her pencil to get the teacher’s attention. Instead of scolding her, the teacher gives positive attention to another student sitting quietly. Riley is more likely to sit quietly to get the teacher’s attention.