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인간의 삶과 역사 속의 미생물 PowerPoint Presentation
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인간의 삶과 역사 속의 미생물

인간의 삶과 역사 속의 미생물

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인간의 삶과 역사 속의 미생물

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  1. 인간의 삶과 역사 속의 미생물 강의자료ppt-12 2011-2학기

  2. 미생물은어떤 존재인가?

  3. 역사의 흐름을 바꾼 미생물

  4. St. Lawrence river and Thousand Islands

  5. Grosse-Ile (large island) in the middle of the St. Lawrence river

  6. Irish Potato Famine (the Great Hunger)

  7. Grosse-Ile island in the middle of the St. Lawrence river : A detention station for sicknesses : Actually served as a vehicle for maintaining class distinctions and scapegoating the “wretched refuse” of Ireland

  8. 1845-1851 : Population of Ireland declined by over 3 million - one half died of starvation, disease, and malnutrition - one half emigrated • Potato late blight (감자 잎마름병) : caused by Phytophthorainfestans

  9. 1800 : Potato as a supplement food source : Irish tenant farmers grew potato since it is almost the only food crop to grow in a part of the Ireland with the poorest soils (The British landowners encouraged cultivation of the potato in Ireland since it saved the grain for export and for their own use) - potato became the staff of life for the Irish peasant - a family of ten needed a ton of potatoes per month to survive - an average adult ate 9 to 15 pounds per day

  10. 1845 : A “queer mist” came over the Irish Sea and the potato stalks turned black as soot : Caused “The Great Hunger” - forced them to try anything that seemed edible - malnutrition made them susceptible to diseases (typhus, cholera, dysentery, and relapsing fever, etc.) • The people of Ireland began a process of migration : Reasons - desperate to escape from virulent racism and prejudice/ starvation caused by the potato failure : Changed of their history and that of Canada, the US, and Great Britain

  11. Coast for supporting the peasant (Landowner paid for it) : 12 pounds to send to the workhouse : 6 pounds to send to Canada • 1.5 million migrated to England • Better peoples went to the US (costs more than to go to the Canada) : By 1914 - There were more than 5 million Irish-Americans : Today - 1/10 Americans is of Irish descent

  12. Increase of Irish Catholic immigrants in the US : Increase in the political power - Formed the first politically and ethnically integrated group : Anti-imperialist policies in America were largely fostered by the Irish immigrants largely because of their hatred of Britain - Delayed US entry into World Wars I and II - During the Civil War, the Irish voted for the hard-line Republicans, not because they were anti-slavery but because they hated the English and the white Anglo-Saxon Protestants who lived in the American South * Also related with WW I, The Great War (1914-1918) - 1916: late blight in Germany affected the War

  13. Smallpox

  14. 20th century: killed at least 300 million people. • Origination: Dense agricultural valleys of the great rivers in Africa and India • To China: AD 100, to Europe: AD 1000 • From Spain to Japan

  15. To America by British, French, and Spain explorers and colonists • 1521: Smallpox allowed Hernan Cortes to topple the Aztec Empire with fewer than 600 men : Landed in the Yucatan on the eastern coast of Mexico and moved on to the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan (Mexico City), where the outnumbered Spaniards lost one-third of their troops : August 21, stormed the city and found that a greater force, smallpox, had ensured their victory * Smallpox already arrived in Mexico: 1520, arriving of expedition from Spanish Cuba with smallpox-infected slave

  16. Only Aztecs died, and the Spaniards were left unharmed : Demoralized the survivors that the Amerindians had no doubt that the Spaniards were the beneficiaries of divine favor : It was this perceived superior power of the God worshipped by the Spaniards that led the Aztecs and other Amerindians to accept Christianity : Without further resistance they submitted to Spanish control

  17. In the time of Cortes and his conquistadors, 3 million Amerindians, an estimated one-third of the total populations of Mexico, were killed by smallpox • Peru : 1526, smallpox killed much of the Inca population : 1931, Peru was taken over by Spaniards • Lastcase: 1979, Somalia

  18. The first germ warfare agent (?) : 1763, between England and France for control of North America - British troops at the Pennsylvania frontier delivered blankets inoculated with smallpox to the Indians • Development of vaccination for epidemic diseases

  19. Bubonic plague

  20. Plague in humans: A bubo formed in the groin • Gangrene and sloughing of skin in hand of plague victim

  21. 1346-1352 : One of the greatest public health disasters : Swept through Europe, the Near East, and Africa (20 million dead) • 1894 : Arrived in Hongkong • Pasteur dispatched AlexaderYersin to isolate the germ of plague (Pasteurellapestis – Yersiniapestis) • Fleas are the vectors between rats and human : Control by quarantine

  22. Plague of Justinian (AD 540-600) : Plague in Constantinople (Istanbul) - Justinian’s troops were unable to accomplish Justinian’s goal of reestablishing the Roman Empire because of the outbreak of plague - The Justinian plague and the subsequent outbreaks of plague over two more centuries marked the end of the Classical World → the Greek and Roman civilizations → the Dark Ages • Second pandemic, the Great Pestilence (1347-1722) : Plateaus of central Asia - Marmot fur with fleas containing plague germs → silk road → western part of the Eurasia

  23. Third plague pandemic : Began in the 1860s in China : 1994, Pneumonic plague outbreak in Surat, India - 1,400 death (“Nothing could be done”) - Commercial airline flights and exports from India were cancelled (a loss of $3 to 4$ billion) : 2005, Congo - Thousands sought refuge in neighboring countries when there was a suspected outbreaks of pneumonic plague

  24. Use as biological warfare : 1346 - by the Mongols during the siege of the Baltic Sea city of Kaffa (Genoese lived in the city) - hurled the plague-ridden dead bodies (Mongol army) over Kaffa’s walls : 1930s, Japanese military attempted to spread plague in China : 1990s, Soviet developed an aerosol (containing pneumonic plague that is transmissible to others by coughing and breathing) that could be used as a biological warfare agent

  25. Syphilis: the Great Pox

  26. Chancre on Lip Chancre on penis

  27. One of the popular origin : Some of the 44-member crew of Christopher Columbus contracted the disease from native Americans during their visit to the Americas : After arrival in Spain in 1493, some of these men joined the army of Charles VIII of France - Invasion of Italy in 1494 → besieged Naples in 1945 → Neapolitan women were infected with syphilis → many troops fell ill with syphilis → forced their withdrawal → the disease spread rapidly through Europe, Africa, and Asia (1497 Hungary and Russia, 1498 Africa and the Middle East, 1498 India, 1505 China, 1515 Australia, 1569 Japan) • French: Naples’ disease, Italian: French disease, Russian: Polish disease, Japanese: Chinese disease, English: Spanish disease

  28. Moral code (1) The Victorian era “Sex within marriage”; the disease is a punishment of immoral sexual behavior; but the disease also could be obtained without sex (2) WWI 13% of those drafted were infected with either syphilis or gonorrhea → anti venereal disease campaign (focus: prostitute) The campaign wanted not only to stop the spread of disease but also to change sexual and social behavior - Military authorities refused to provide the latex condom to the troops - Punished the soldiers with the disease - The campaign was unsuccessful (3) WW II Provided condoms. If a soldier did not report the disease, it was a court martial offense

  29. Cholera

  30. 1892 : Cholera epidemic in Europe and Russia - Affected immigration of European Jews into the US (1892. 1-9.: 3,000/month, 1892. 10-12.: 250/month)

  31. Sewage-related disease; Epidemic and pandemic • Efforts to prevent cholera : Paving roads, cleaning the streets, providing clean water, and carrying off wastes : Sanitary intervention : Quarantine • Resulted in the institution of sanitary reforms and the rise of public health • Inspired the formation of international bodies to monitor and control the global spread of all infectious diseases

  32. Malaria

  33. An ancient disease • The fever spike may reach 41oC : Damage spleen • Mortality : When untreated, 25% in adults : Today, every 10 s a person dies of malaria - Mostly children under the age of 5 living in Africa (one in three children die of malaria) - 2-3 million deaths are caused by malaria

  34. A companion of War : Alexander the Great - Did not extend his conquests over the entire subcontinent of India in large part because, in 323 BC, he died of malaria at age 33 : Malaria repelled foreign invaders from sacking ancient Rome : Caesar’s campaigns were disrupted by malaria : Frederic Barbarossa’s army (12 C) prevented from attacking Rome because of malaria Federick I, FedericRedbeard

  35. One of the major obstacle both socially and economically : Malaria was prevalent in the fens of England and in colonial America, debilitating the farming population : In the time of Revolutionary War (American War of Independence, 1775-1783), malaria played a role in several critical battles : During the Civil War (1861-1865), a high incidence of malaria among the troops from the North stationed in the South (1/2 of white troops and 4/5 of the black troops contracting malaria annually)

  36. : During WW I (1914-1918) and II (1939-1945), malaria plagued the French and British engaged in the battle (for every man evacuated with wounds, one hundred and twenty evacuated with sick) : During the Korean (1950-1953) and Vietnam wars (1946-1954, 1961-1975), malaria was “The Great Debilitator”

  37. Yellow Fever: the Saffron Scourge

  38. Annually ca. 1,000 cases are reported worldwide, but the actual number may be 200 times greater, and with a reservoir of jungle yellow fever in monkey populations in tropical South America and Africa, the disease will never be eradicated. • Although yellow fever has never appeared in Asia, what would be the consequences if it did?

  39. Yellow fever virus evolved from other mosquito-borne viruses about 3,000 years ago, probably in Africa, where it remains endemic. • It was imported to the New World and elsewhere aboard trading ships with their cargoes of human flesh, i.e., slaves. • Mosquito serves as the intermediate host for the parasite of yellow fever

  40. 1648 : Yucatan, Cuba, and Barbados • 1690s : North America, especially Charleston, New York, and Philadelphia (port cities with dense populations) - In 1693, epidemic broke out in Boston after arrival of the British fleet from Barbados - In 1699, in Philadelphia and Charleston - In 1702, in New York

  41. African slaves were more resistant to the yellow fever effect than the Caucasiana, Amerindians, or Asians : Growing numbers of African slaves were brought in to replace those plantation laborers

  42. The Great Influenza

  43. 1889: Russian flu killed 1 million • 1957: Asian flu killed 2 million • 1968: Hong Kong flu killed 1 million • 1918 flu: Killed more people than the Black Death of the Middle Ages and more than AIDS over the past 25 years

  44. Influenza hastened the end of WW I (1914. 7. 28.-1918. 11. 11.) : In the spring of 1918, as a result of Russians withdrawing from the war, the German army began to mount a massive offensive on the Western front consisting of 1 million men, 37 infantry divisions, and 3,000 guns. : In May, German Army and its artillery were within striking distance of Paris – victory? : However, in late June, German army began to suffer from an outbreak of influenza (2,000 men in each division were afflicted) – weakening of German army

  45. Influenza pandemic : Killed more than twice the number of German soldiers who died on the battle fields of WW I : Created the economic hardships, nationalistic reaction, and political chaos in Germany - Fostered the rise of Nazi party and sowed the seeds for another WW * Woodrow Wilson, President of the US, was also ill and disoriented with influenza (acquired during outbreaks in Paris)